Task Solutions- Understand the Human Interactions: ENG101

Task Solutions- Understand the Human Interactions: ENG101

Language Variations and Modern English- ENGLA202

Language Variations and Modern English- ENGLA202

Running Head: LANGUAGE VARIATIONS AND MODRN ENGLISHES
Language Variatio ns and Modern Englishes
Name of the Stu …

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Running Head: LANGUAGE VARIATIONS AND MODRN ENGLISHES
Language Variatio ns and Modern Englishes
Name of the Student
Name of the University
Author Note
1 LANGUAGE VARIATIONS AND MODERN ENGLISHES
Table of Contents
Sectio n A ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……… 2
Questio n 1. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. .. 2
Sectio n B ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……… 3
Questio n no. 2 ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 3
Questio n 3. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. .. 5
Questio n 4. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. .. 6
Works C ited ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …. 9
2 LANGUAGE VARIATIONS AND MODERN ENGLISHES
Section A
Questi on 1.
a. ___ Language Shift _____ occurs when a language is replaced with another as the prima ry
means of communicatio n within a speech community .
b. The term _____ acrolect ___ re fe rs to the most creole -like variety at one extreme of a post –
creole continuum.
c. A/An ___ mixed langua ge _______ is formed when two or more langua ges come into
contact; it has no native speakers.
d. ___ Code switching __ re fers to langua ge alternatio n at the inter -sente ntia l level.
e. ___ Code mixing __ re fers to langua ge alternatio n at the intra -sente ntia l level.
f. ___ Mutual intelligib ility ___ ofte n serves as a linguistic criterio n for deciding whether two
varieties are dialects of a langua ge or two separate language s.
g. __ Age -specific use of langua ge ____ happe ns when individ ua ls use a langua ge differe n t ly
at different stages in their life.
h. According to Kachru, ____ outer ____ circle countries are those where English is used as a
foreign langua ge.
i. In recent years, the use of __ gender -exc lusive __ _la ng ua ge has been promoted in order to
avoid bias toward a particular sex or gender.
j. Language ___ bo nd i ng ___ ca n be understood as individ ua ls’ bonding or attachment to a
langua ge which is not necessarily one, they are given based on who they are.
3 LANGUAGE VARIATIONS AND MODERN ENGLISHES
Section B
Questi on no. 2
Language Death , in linguistic s studies , is described as a process of wearing out of usage
of a langua ge. The death of a language can be sudden as well as gradual. In the case of a who le
community’s existence being erased by natural or artific ia l causes, the death of the language is
sudden. However, when the speakers of the langua ge shift towards using a more powerful
langua ge, the death are gradual. In the cases of the gradual death of a langua ge, the speakers can
deliberate ly stop or reduce the usage of the lang ua ge (Dorian ). It is also imp ortant to note that the
gradual death of a langua ge can also be forced upon by a more powerful linguistic community on
the weaker linguistic community.
A heavy part of the world’s English -speak ing people is not speaking English as the ir
mother tongue, but rather as a learned second language or even a third langua ge . It is important to
note that the growth of the English -speak ing populatio n is rapid and also significa ntly importa nt
in terms of discussing the causes of language death. The rapid spread of Eng lish as a glo b a l
langua ge of communica tio n can easily be pointed out as a major reason for langua ge deaths
(Mufwene ). As in most cases, the langua ge English is utilised as an officia l one, the people
belonging to other linguistic communitie s are often compelled to learn English for their own
purposes. Another important reason for the rapid spread of the English language can be noted in
the aspect of fast globalisa tio n in every aspect of human lives. Fo r this particular reason, Englis h
is being used (often pushed) as a common language for communicatio n in the era of globalisa t io n
and also to ease communicatio n between differe nt linguistic communities (Hodge ). This can
effective ly be cited as a reason for English being a major reason behind the death of langu age s.
4 LANGUAGE VARIATIONS AND MODERN ENGLISHES
The English langua ge is not only economica l but also lacks redundancy in comparison to othe r
widely spoken langua ges all over the world, such as Chinese or Spanish (Milroy ). English as a
langua ge also has a higher adaptability as compared to other popularly spoken langua ges in the
world. For this particular reason, English often contributes to the death of a certain langua ge, as
the moribund langua ge ’s specific ities are absorb ed by English and the origina l langua ge goes out
of use (Hoffer) .
Some of the langua ges previously widely used such as Latin have been out of use for a
long time, however, the elements of that particula r language have remained. By this logic, mid d le
Engli sh can also be considered as a dead langua ge, however, by looking at the historic a l
development of linguistic variatio n, it can be concluded that English has grown to the mode rn
variatio n being used currently. Linguists in general are concerned about the d eath of langua ge s.
Linguistic research shows two significa nt directions in serious concerns about the death of a
langua ge. Some of the linguists are concerned about the death of the semiotic potential of the dying
langua ge . The semiotic theory of langua ge engages with a few aspects of a langua ge, are semio tic
strata, use of rules, hierarchica l stratifica tio n, sequencing, structure and semiotic relevance. Some
of the linguists are concerned about the disappearance of the semio tic importance of the dying
langua ge. On the other hand, some of linguists are of the opinion that unless a language sudde nly
dies, the disappearing langua ge significa ntly influe nces several aspects of the language that is
overpowering the dying langu age (Hodge) . Research show s that people who are shifting towards
English from a certain langua ge also carry the cultura l significa nces and connotations of their own
langua ge into English as resources. In this way, the langua ge does not entirely die but some of its
elements remain in the more powerful langua ge.
5 LANGUAGE VARIATIONS AND MODERN ENGLISHES
Questi on 3.
To assess the agreeability with the concept of inseparable interconnectio ns betwee n
langua ge and culture, it is imperative to look into the specific influe nces of langua ges on a culture
and v ice versa. Personally. I strongly agree with the statement that langua ge and culture are
inextricab ly connected. The most important purposes of langua ges are the purpose of
communicatio n and expression. Communica tio n and expression both are inseparably rel ated to
cultures. Several studies have shown that there are words used in specific cultures within the same
linguistic community. In the study of langua ge varieties and dialects, it has been time and aga in
highlighted that several socio -cultura l factors influe nce langua ge very strongly (Kramsch) . The
origins of the languages, historica l basis and factors such as the socio -economic strata of the people
who speak the langua ge signific a ntly influe nce the langua ge (Jiang) . The element of shared culture
often adds to the mutual intelligib ility of the different dialects or different langua ges. For a better
understand ing of the interconnectio n between langua ge and culture, an example can be cited. Both
Hindi and Urdu have the same roots and also are spoken by a large population in differe nt regio ns
of the world. However, the influe nce of religio n in terms of the two langua ges’ apparent variatio ns,
the Islamist populatio n adopted the Arabic script and the Hindus adopted the Devanagari script.
Thus, religio n, as a cultura l factor influe nc ed the development of the two langua ges of the same
root and same historic a l background. Unlike Hindi and Urdu, many the Chinese langua ges share
the same script but are undaunted ly mutually uninte lligib le. In t his case, the lack of mutua l
intelligib ility can be pinned on the differe nces in the cultura l contexts of the language s being
spoken.
Globalisa tio n can also be cited as a substantia l element that establishes the interconnec t io n
between language s and cultu res. With the rapid globalisatio n of every aspect of human live s,
6 LANGUAGE VARIATIONS AND MODERN ENGLISHES
dominant langua ges are often overpowering small -scale dialects or langua ges. Globalisa tio n is a
socio -cultura l phenomeno n and the langua ges are largely affected by it all over the world. By
studying the popular proverbs used in a particular language the establishme nt of the
interconnectio n between languages and cultures can be done more strongly (Lomotey, Benedic ta
Adokarley, and Ildiko Csajbok -Twerefou ). Proverbs are strongly connected with the specific
cultura l aspects of a particular langua ge. For example, a bird in hand is worth two in the bush .
This particular English proverb is connected with the culture of hunting. The cultures that are not
habituated to hunting will not definite ly adapt or consider using this particular proverb to insin ua te
any meaning. By the assessment of these socio -cultura l factors, it can be said that langua ge is
connected with specific cultures on multip le levels. For example, by adapting the culture of the
Am erican Dream a few words or phrases related to American Dream , such as rags to riches and
hustle have started being used by differe nt linguistic groups around the world (Labov) . Other
socio -cultura l aspects like religio us rituals and dominant ideologie s al so influe nce the langua ge s
spoken all over the world. It is very important to note th e fact that several of the words and phrase s
adopted by different linguistic groups often tend to change their connotations and meanings.
Questi on 4.
The increasing grow th of English as a communicatio n langua ge has undoubtedly sparked
an interesting but contentio us argument about the status of English in its various forms, known as
World Englishes (Kachru). In his paper “World Englishes and Applied Linguistic s, ” Kachru
discusses the limita tio ns of the traditiona l ly applied linguistics points of view on world Englis he s,
claiming that they have been skewed by inner -circ le practitio ners’ ethnocentrisms, dependence on
interla ngua ge and inaccuracy analysis frameworks, and misundersta nd ings about the
sociolinguistic facts of multilingua l outer -circle communitie s. The English language employed by
7 LANGUAGE VARIATIONS AND MODERN ENGLISHES
‘native’ speakers was traditiona lly thought to be the best paradigm for langua ge descriptio n,
acquisitio n, and instructio n (Medgyes) . However , as linguists have recorded how Englis h diffe rs
all around the world over the last 20 years, there has been a rising acknowledg eme nt of a varie ty
of language s and World Englishes. Two connected bodies of research have aided in the comple tio n
of this project. The first line of inquiry into Worl d Englishe s investiga tes the langua ge (as well as
its politic s and usage) in various places of the globe. The focus of this research on World Englis he s
is on linguistic divergence, or how local/regio na l variants of English differ from other varieties of
En glish. English as a Lingua Franca research, on the other hand, examines langua ge features tha t
are common in different varieties of English, as well as langua ge features that potentially obstruc t
communicatio n between users of differe nt varietie s (Jenkins, Cogo, and Dewey) . It also examine s
techniques people take to adjust for linguistic diversity. By the informa tio n and detaile d
specificatio ns presented above, it can be concluded that although the notion of World Englishes is
solely in the interest of the linguists, common people can also learn about the concept in order to
gain better knowledge about their langua ges as well as other foreign language s.
Several scholars are of the opinion that the notion of World Englishes cover s Englis h
spoken in various r egions of the world that are put in the outer circle by Kachru in his model of
concentric circles (Kachru) . Although the discussio n included in the notion of World Englishe s is
largely scholarly and deeply rooted in the science of linguistics, there are socio -cultura lly relate d
factors in the analysis of the concept of World Englishes that can be of interest to the commo n
people. It is none of the native speakers’ business in Engla nd, the U S, or anywhere else in the world
how English evolves in the world. They have really no voice in the case, and they have no autho rity
to interfere or make a decision. They don’t matter. The fact that English is a global langua ge mea ns
that neither single country can claim ownership of it (Phillip so n) . To cede such custody of the
8 LANGUAGE VARIATIONS AND MODERN ENGLISHES
langua ge is to halt its evolutio n and, as a result, to jeopardise its internatio na l standing. For native
English speakers, the fact that their dialect is an internatio na l medium of communicatio n is a source
of great pride and joy. However, it is on ly global to the level that this was not their native tongue
(Kilickaya ). It is not a property that they rent out to others while keeping the freehold. It is actua lly
owned by someone else. From the above discussio n , it can be said that , though not firmly but
loosely it can be said that the notion of World Englishes is a field of study for the interests of the
linguists largely. By the elements that have been analysed in the discussion of the argument tha t
whether the notion is for the interest of the gener al public or just of the linguists, it can also be said
that, generally a population speaking English as their second o r third language do not have the
particular point of interest in studying the historica l growth of the langua ge in non -native Englis h –
spe aking countries (Saxena and Tope , eds) . It can also be said that it also needs to be kept in mind
that the study of World Englishes comprises of several socio -cultura l factors that contribute to the
research of linguistic development and variatio n. Considering this as a fact, it can also be said that,
the notion of World Englishes can only be taken as a subject of great interest by the linguists. Also ,
another important factor that needs to be included is that only linguists have the abilities and sk ills
to analyse the particular components of sociolinguistics in terms of world Englishe s. Thus, the
field of study requires technica l as well as theoretica l knowledge which is not of easy access to the
general public. In all over conclusio n, it is importa nt to state that the demographic gentrifica t io n
of English being spoken in non -native countries, other fields like populatio n studies and
psychology are also connected.
9 LANGUAGE VARIATIONS AND MODERN ENGLISHES
Works Cited
Bolton, Kingsley. “World Englishes and linguistic landscapes.” World E nglishes 31.1 (2012): 30 –
33.
Dorian, Nancy C. “Langua ge death.” Language Death . University of Pennsylva nia Press, 2016.
Hodge, Bob. Social semiotic s for a complex world: Analysing langua ge and social meaning. John
Wiley & Sons, 2016.
Hoffer, Bates L. “Langua ge borrowing and the indices of adaptability and
receptivity. ” Intercultural communication studies 14.2 (2005): 53.
Jenkins, Jennifer, Alessia Cogo, and Martin Dewey. “Revie w of developments in research into
English as a lingua franca.” Language tea ching 44.3 (2011): 281 -315.
Jiang, Wenying. “The relationship between culture and language. ” ELT journal 54.4 (2000): 328 –
334.
Kachru, Braj B. “The power and politics of English. ” World Englishes 5.2 ‐3 (1986): 121 -140.
Kilickaya, Ferit. “World Englishes, English as an Internatio na l Language and Applie d
Linguistics. ” English Language Teaching 2.3 (2009): 35 -38.
Labov, Willia m. Language in the inner city: Studies in the Black English vernacular. No. 3.
University of Pennsylva nia Press, 1972.
Lomotey, Benedic ta Adokarley, and Ildiko Csajbok -Twerefou. “A pragmatic and sociolinguis t ic
analysis of proverbs across langua ges and cultures. ” Journal of Pragmatics 182 (2021):
86 -91.
Medgyes, Peter. “Native or non -native : who’s worth more?.” ELT journal 46.4 (1992): 34 0-349.
Milroy, James. “Princip les of Linguistic Change. Volume I: Internal Factors.” (1995): 435 -439.
Mufwene, Salikoko S. “Langua ge birth and death.” Annu. Rev . Anthropol. 33 (2004): 201 -222.
10 LANGUAGE VARIATIONS AND MODERN ENGLISHES
Sasse, Hans -Jürgen. “Theory of langua ge death.” Contributions t o the Sociology of Language 64
(1992): 7 -7.
Saxena, Mukul, and Tope Omoniyi, eds. Contending with globalization in world Englishes . Vol.
9. Clevedon, UK: Multilingua l Matters, 2010.

Task Solutions-More Effective in Treating the Patients :COMM141

Task Solutions-More Effective in Treating the Patients :COMM141

Surname of the Student 1
Name of the Student
Name of the Professor
Subject code
Date
“Treating Addiction: Is Medication the Best Way to Tre …

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Surname of the Student 1
Name of the Student
Name of the Professor
Subject code
Date
“Treating Addiction: Is Medication the Best Way to Treat Drug Addiction? ”
Drug addiction is considered to be a chronic disease which can be characterised by
uncontrollable impulses for the consumption of harmful drugs. Drug Addiction, according to the
opinion of Ma et al., has been noted to have asignificant ly negative impact on the lives of the
addicted individuals as it has the potential to create a lasting severe impact on the cognitive
abilities of the human brain .The most problematic issue with drug abuse is relapse .Addiction
treatment is possible through behavioural counselling, medication, skills training and others. Th e
current essay aims to provide a critical discourse on the impact of medical prescription or
following the 12 steps of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in treating drug addiction. The current
essay aims at establishing the stance that medication is essential in treating Drug Addiction.
Drugs and chemicals have been known to be affecting the brain and the body at different
levels depending on the intensity of the chemical composition of the drugs. Most of the effects
include long term impacts related to health consequences for the individuals (National Institution
on Drug Abuse). Itis estimated that the number of worldwide illegal drug consumers between
1990 and 2019 has increased from 180 million to 275 million by 2019 (Elflein). In 2018, the
overall percentage of use of illegal drugs has been estimated to be around 5.4% (Elflein).
Considering the statistics about the United States, it can be noticed that over 127 million people
are addicted to marijuana whereas around 16 million have been subjected to consuming
Surname of the Student 2
methamphetamine at aspecific given point in their lives (Elflein). Moreover, as suggested by
Volkow et al., further emphasizing the concept of drug addiction in the world, Opioids can be
defined as synthetic prescription drugs like hydrocodone and fentanyl, other than natural opioids
like heroin or morphine. Research shows that medication is not only the best intervention but
also the most realiable way of dealing with drug or substance abuse. However, there are other
medical professionals who hold the opinion that alongwith medication, support system and
psychological therapy are essential to deal with drug or substance abuse.
As suggested by Cutler et al., the abuse of psychoactive substances ha sbeen noted to be
having anotable negative effect on the disruptions it causes in the lives of individuals, families
and society while creating asignificant impact on the physical health of the addicts. Moreover, it
also influences family relationships, social activities and the workability of the person. Signficant
social disruption of lives of the addicts are quoted by some researchers as their basis to suggest
that intervention strategies other than medication are essential to deal with drug abuse. As noted
at the beginning, the most staggering problem with substance abuse is relapse and medication
cannot fully gurantee sobriety. As argued by Dunlop et al., it also leads to ahigh violence rate,
homelessness, poverty and pushing the families into poor quality of life. The potential of
economic contribution to the society is also significantly lowered by lowering productivity.
Hence, the nations with high er drug addiction rates have been considerably pushed beyond the
standard global economy level .To deal with these particular effects of drug abuse that cripples
the individual as well as the society, social and individual interventions strategies need to be in
place.
Medication is quite effective in the treatment of drug addictions as it is effective mainly
when it is combined with behavioural therapies. According to Dunlop et al., treatment with
Surname of the Student 3
medications like methadone, buprenorphine and naltrexone have been quite successful in treating
patients with addiction to opioids. Also, other medicines like varenicline and bupropion are
effective in treating patients with tobacco addiction. As argued by Volkow et al., itcan be further
noticed that Disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate are quite affluent drugs to treat individuals
with alcohol dependence. The success rate of rehab rate is quite subjective to debates since ithas
been noticed that most patients need to be shifted to other rehabs for further treatment. It directs
that rehab treatments even though effective in certain cases might not be the most reliable option.
Whereas, in terms of medication, the most successful results have been found amongst the
addicted patients. Further argued by Ma et al., almost 41% of the addicted patients have
expressed arapid recovery due to medication-assisted treatment (MAT), mostly for opioid detox.
Moreover, the expenses of rehab treatments are quite high for every section of the people to
afford. Since drug addiction has been noted to be a relapsing disorder, medication can be
considered more effective in treating the patients as most of the time therapies seem to fail to
completely treat the people.
From the above analysis, it can be concluded that drug and alcohol addiction is aserious
concern for nations all over the world as it is capable of disrupting the societal structure of the
countries. It is also capable of bearing catastrophic consequences in the physical, mental and
social lives of the people. Considering the comparison between the therapeutic and medication
treatments, itcan be understood that medication is more effective in treating people.
Surname of the Student 4
Works Cited
Cutler, Rachelle Louise, et al. “Economic impact of medication non-adherence by disease groups:
asystematic review.” BMJ open 8.1 (2018): e016982.
Dunlop, Adrian, et al. “Challenges in maintaining treatment services for people who use drugs
during the COVID-19 pandemic.” Harm reduction journal 17.1 (2020): 1-7.
Elflein, John. “Addicts And Consumers Of Illegal Drugs Worldwide 1990-2019 |Statista”.
Statista, 2021, https://www.statista.com/statistics/274688/addicts-and-consumers-of-
illegaldrugs-worldwide/.
Elflein, John. “Topic: Drug Use In The U.S.”. Statista, 2021,
https://www.statista.com/topics/3088/drug-use-in-the-us/#topicHeader__wrapper.
Ma, Jun, et al. “Effects of medication-assisted treatment on mortality among opioids users: a
systematic review and meta-analysis.” Molecular psychiatry 24.12 (2019): 1868-1883.
National Institution on Drug Abuse. “Treatment Approaches For Drug Addiction Drugfacts |
National Institute On Drug Abuse”. National Institute On Drug Abuse, 2022,
https://nida.nih.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction.
Volkow, Nora D., et al. “Prevention and treatment of opioid misuse and addiction: areview.”
JAMA psychiatry 76.2 (2019): 208-216.

Task Solutions- History of Racism and Discrimination :ENGL060

Task Solutions- History of Racism and Discrimination :ENGL060

The question you need to argue: “Is one method of acknowledgement of the black
experience, whether through writing/art, or reparations, better …

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The question you need to argue: “Is one method of acknowledgement of the black
experience, whether through writing/art, or reparations, better than the other? ”
Name of Student
Professor
Course
Code
Date
2
INTRODUCTION
It is necessary to be well informed about history and the experiences of black people in
the United States, as is reparation; but reparation must be more effective (Táíwò,2022) .They
may require further information to address the underlying problem rather than the symptom. As a
result of the abolition of slavery in the United States The unfairness, inequality, racism, classism,
and brutality that African Americans faced did not end there. Not only that, but the trauma did
not end there. The trauma is also passed on to the children. Enslavement has an impact on
everything and has ruined many people’s lives both during and after slavery. As James Baldwin
explains his father’s animosity and mental instability. Coates, on the other hand, focuses on ways
to assist those affected by slavery.
He discusses how he did not have afather-son relationship with his father while he was
alive. And his other sibling lacks the uniting factor, and they both despise their father. Baldwin
describes how slavery affected him and his relationship with his father (Hábl, 2022) .What
Baldwin’s father has gone through in life as aresult of the color of his skin has strained his
relationships with his children, wife, and relatives, as well as his neighbor. The silence has
shaped his people’s perception of Baldwin father as atough, bitter, and hardhearted man.
Because of the load he has hidden within himself, Baldwin’s father only sees himself as black
and not handsome. Slavery has an impact on Baldwin’s father and grandmother’s relationship.
According to the notes of the native son, itis essential to note that Baldin has had a
strained relationship with his father from his childhood. He addresses his contempt for his father
in retrospect as aperson who has been in the same situations as his father. The relationship
with his father remained to be worse. Although his father remained to be present all the times,
they talked rarely. Baldwin thought his father was anut therefore he was scared of him only to
3
come into reality as he grew older that his father wanted to protect him from the outside world.
“when my father died, Ihad been away from home for alittle over,” Baldwin explains. Icame to
discover the importance of my father ’sbeing harsh to me and his warnings later in the year, the
reason for his proudly pursed lips and stiff carriage.: Irealized the power of white people in the
world.” The reason for Baldwin isolation was because of his family, race, religion, and poverty.
He was intensely conscious of his physical and mental isolation from the rest of the world. He
noticed his physical and mental isolation from the rest of the world and became intensely aware
of itwhen he left home for new jersey. Baldwin “…contracted some awful, chronic disease, the
unfailing symptom of which is atype of blind fever, apounding in the brain, and aburning in the
intestines.” One cannot be genuinely carefree again once affected with the sickness”. This is a
bodily reaction to the relentless racial agony he faced in every part of his life. The character of
Chike in Chike’s School Days is the only son in afamily of six children (Bullock Floyd, 2022) .
His birth is celebrated, and alot is expected from him by his family. His mother, Sarah, is Osu, a
lower caste “to be despised and almost spat at.” Chike’s father Amos and Amos’ mother have
taken the Christian religion. Chike and his sisters are raised “in the ways of the white man.” This
means that the family has shunned their native religion and culture in favor of Christianity and
European traditions.
They send Chike to the village school when “he was old enough to tackle the white man’s
learning mysteries.” There he learns the catechism, English, history, and arithmetic. He also
discovers adeep fascination with words and alove of language. The story suggests that this love
of language will open doors for Chike and bring him fulfillment. Chike was destined to
experience alienation due to his being born Osu. Although his family’s choice to live as
Christians caused Chike some alienation from his own culture, italso provided Chike with
4
additional opportunities that he would not have had otherwise. Chike’s situation is similar to
Baldwin’s in that both fathers contribute to their alienation from their respective cultures. The
difference is that Baldwin’s father was motivated by his negative, painful experiences, and as he
attempted to protect his children, he also caused them pain.
Amos’s motivation for bringing up his children in the white man’s ways isn’t explored in
the story, but the story’s tone is hopeful. Instead of keeping Chike isolated within the Osu culture
and away from white people, Amos embraces the “white man’s ways” and allows Chike
complete exposure to the Christian culture. Baldwin’s father tried to protect his son by keeping
him isolated and away from white people. Hence, Baldwin grew up wary and mistrustful of
white society, and he also had avery negative self-concept. He was unhappy for most of his life.
Chike doesn’t show this tendency. He loves school and feels entirely at home there. His
education opens his mind to the whole world, and he feels the magic of possibility, and “he was
happy.” Both Baldwin and Chike experience alienation, but they experience itdifferently. For
Baldwin, the experience is painful. It causes him both internal and external struggles throughout
his life. He feels alienated from white society, black society, religion, and his family. For Chike,
the experience is not painful. He grows up “different” from his peers, but he demonstrates a
positive self-image and openness and curiosity about the world outside his village. His alienation
from his culture is an opportunity to become something more significant than his culture would
allow. Both fathers want the best for their sons, but their struggles have very different outcomes.
Ta-Nehisi Coates’ argument for reparations is persuasive, and Iagree with him. Ibelieve
that the history of racism and discrimination in the United States justifies the imposition of
reparations for African-Americans today. The legacy of racism and discrimination in the United
States, according to Coates, necessitates the payment of reparations. He uses the example of
5
slavery, which was asystem of racial injustice that existed for hundreds of years until being
abolished. His other point of reference is the Jim Crow laws, which were laws that discriminated
against African-Americans at the time. Even though these regulations were in force for many
years, they significantly influenced African-Americans.
As well as this, Coates contends that reparations are required due to how black
Americans have been treated in the modern era. He uses the case of police shootings of unarmed
black individuals to illustrate. He also uses the example of mass incarceration to make his point.
Because of racism and discrimination, African-Americans are disproportionately incarcerated, a
situation that must be addressed immediately. Despite my reservations, In believe Coates
presents acompelling case for reparations. The history of racism and discrimination in the
United States justifies the imposition of reparations for African-Americans today.
References,
Bullock Floyd, M. (2022). Soil and Soul: Fostering Cultural Healing Through Reconnection to
the Land.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bioe.12954?casa_token=epJFDhZtdOEA
AAAA:w87jW_VoPOx57Dy_h7g5B2dby-
Chapman, A. R. (2022). Rethinking the issue of reparations for Black
Americans. Bioethics ,36 (3), 235-242.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bioe.12954?casa_token=epJFDhZtdOEA
6
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qOjUtTymS_8w2w7hnS3HNZKsNWmsn1ZEnUoTUL5Njp-NfXAcd_rEIv
Hábl, J. (2022). A Reparation of Irreparable Things?. The Restoration of Human Affairs:
Utopianism or Realism? ,194.
https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ZXtdEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA194
&dq=notes+of+a+native+son+reparation+&ots=37c7MDZaK7&sig=mXLCjPdta_f-
KcdsBA0fZlYE5PY
Miller, M. R., & Sánchez-Eppler, K. (2022). Joining reinterpretation to reparations. Museums &
Social Issues ,1-11.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15596893.2022.2062829?casa_token=z_h
12NL5vs8AAAAA:qiaT6WuWyAYOYWX_6Ok8kOMJcJCyfGTsi_2eWO4Ob3AE5SN
ZxHgYRv2uPJUDSlM4W3MypKirYxY1VZWv
Táíwò,O. O. (2022). Reconsidering reparations .Oxford University Press.
https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=7fdQEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&d
q=notes+of+a+native+son+reparation+&ots=GRR7X4ZEzN&sig=UAliUq5rdF4X_P4n-
ZHxMWJylh4

Case Study Answers On Frankenstein and Walter ENGL1201

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Task Solutions | Emerging and Global Business: 6HURM009W

Task  Solutions | Emerging and Global Business: 6HURM009W

1
6HURM009W
Students Name
Course Number and Name
Institution Affiliation
Tutors Name
Date
2
Introduction
Businesses today operate on aglobal b …

Preview text

1
6HURM009W
Students Name
Course Number and Name
Institution Affiliation
Tutors Name
Date
2
Introduction
Businesses today operate on aglobal basis without regard to national borders. Trade and
access to new markets are rising, worldwide mergers and acquisitions and joint ventures are
emerging and global business ties are becoming increasingly intertwined (Bunten, 2018).
Therefore, managers are required to follow both national and international regulations. Any
attempt to comprehensively examine global economic trends must take Germany and the United
States of America into account. One is the biggest economy in Europe, the fourth largest in the
world, and home to global business heavyweights like BMW, Bayer, and Siemens. The other is
the world’s preeminent industrial powerhouse, the world’s largest economy by practically every
metric, and the home of globally renowned brands such as Apple, Microsoft, and McDonald’s.
The corporations of both Germany share several features such as use of high technology among
many and also there is alot that sets the firms operating in these two countries apart as discussed
in this essay.
Similarities and Differences
Stock operations in the United States are governed by two separate corporate entities.
One of the most important meetings is the annual general meeting, which brings together all of
the company’s directors and stockholders once ayear. Instead, German corporation law creates a
two-tiered structure with two boards, each with distinct responsibilities and responsibilities that
interact with one another (Chang, 2009). While most countries’ firms only have two
organizational tiers, Germany has three.
There are also substantial disparities between Germany and the United States in terms of
labor and employment legislation, as well as the environment. However, although “employment
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at will” is commonplace in the U.S., the usual employment contract in Germany is for an
unlimited period and may only be terminated for particular reasons and with statutory notice
periods in Germany. This is asignificant difference.
Furthermore, the American culture is characterized as the land of liberty and opportunity,
and the American way of life as amodel for the pursuit of happiness in many organizations (El-
Bassiouny & El-Bassiouny, 2018). The Germans, on the other hand, prefer a “we” culture in
which people identify primarily with agroup and place ahigh value on solidarity.
It is widely known that the United States and Germany are two major economic powers
in the world. American and German firms have a lot in common. One of the most important
similarities between American and German firms is that they are both large and multinational. In
fact, the largest firms in the world are usually American or German. Another similarity between
American and German firms is that they are both highly competitive. Finally, American and
German firms are both subject to strict regulation.
Explaining of the similarities and differences
One of the most important similarities between American and German firms is that they
are both large and multinational. In fact, the largest firms in the world are usually American or
German. For example, Walmart, Exxon Mobil, and General Motors are all American firms,
while Volkswagen, Siemens, and Bayer are German (Dore, 2006). These firms are all leaders in
their respective industries, and they have asignificant presence in many different countries.
In both American and German firms is that they are both highly competitive. In both
countries, there is alot of competition among firms, and companies are always looking for ways
to gain an edge over their rivals. This competition is one of the main drivers of innovation and
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growth in both countries. Firms in the United States and Germany are vying for abigger portion
of market share in each other’s marketplaces and in other nations. As aresult, comparing the
financial features of American and German companies might give useful information to financial
managers and investors in these nations. People in Germany are interested in different things
based on where they are located (Gelter & Helleringer, 2018). Successful market strategy
incorporates regional differences as part of a strong national presence. Because the primary
competitors for most American products are local companies with established presences,
competent representation is a huge benefit to any market strategy. High-quality products and
services at competitive prices, as well as local after-sales support, can help American businesses
compete. Investment may be discouraged by Germany’s high marginal tax rates and the country’s
complicated tax legislation, but the country’s generous use of tax credits and other incentives
helps to keep effective tax rates competitive globally.
In both countries, there are laws and regulations that govern the activities of firms. These
regulations are designed to protect consumers and to ensure that firms operate in a fair and
transparent manner. Germany’s company law provides several legal avenues for conducting
entrepreneurial business activity. German statutory rules specify the available corporate legal
forms, which can be customized to a greater or lesser extent using contractual clauses. All
regulatory standards surrounding corporations and the legal basis for continued commercial
activities for all legal entities recognized by Germany are found in German company law (M üller,
Buliga & Voigt, 2021). Corporations limited by partnerships and companies limited by shares
are distinguished under German law. Various legal regimes in the United States regulate
corporate governance. This group includes state and federal statutes and regulations produced by
avariety of government entities.
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A stock corporation has two corporate entities under US law. The annual (general)
meeting is the first. It is aonce-a-year meeting of the board of directors and shareholders. The
board of directors briefs shareholders on the company’s success at the meeting. Additionally,
shareholders elect the Board of Directors and vote on resolutions. By allowing shareholders to
vote on the company’s direction during the annual meeting, shareholders are accorded significant
authority. However, in reality, avariety of reasons restrict shareholders’ actual authority (Koen,
2005). While shareholders democratically elect the Board of Directors, they can vote for or
against only one candidate (or abstain), and there is often no competition. The second corporate
entity is the Board of Directors. It is responsible for managerial oversight. This board is
comprised of individuals from both the internal and external communities. Outside directors are
not company workers and typically serve on the management team (executive directors),
whereas inside directors are (non-executive directors). A chairman represents and preside over
the board.
German corporate law, on the other hand, creates atwo-tier organization with two boards.
They each have separate responsibilities and interact with one another. German firms have three
corporate bodies instead than just two. The annual meeting is the first for US firms. It has many
of the same characteristics and responsibilities as acorporate annual meeting in the United States.
Shareholders of German firms, like those in the United States, have alot of power in principle,
but they rarely utilize itto influence corporate management (M üller, Buliga & Voigt, 2021). The
second and third corporate bodies are two different boards of directors, each with its own
specific set of powers and responsibilities: On one hand, the Management Board is responsible
for the administration, coordination, and control of the firm. It is expected to report on aregular
basis to the second board of directors, the Supervisory Board. Decisions are made democratically,
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with the chairman unable to reject a majority vote of the board. On the other side, the
Supervisory Board is responsible for supervising and managing top management and for
approving key firm decisions.
There are also substantial disparities between Germany and the United States in terms of
labor and employment legislation, as well as the environment. While the dominant paradigm in
the United States is “employment at will,” which allows both parties (employer and employee) to
terminate the relationship at any time and for any reason, the standard employment contract in
Germany is indefinite in duration and can be terminated only for specific reasons and with
statutory notice periods. Both the employer and employee have a one-month notice period,
however the employer’s notice term grows with the employee’s duration, up to seven months for
a 20-year employee. Termination with notice is authorized for a range of reasons, including
personal, behavioral, and business, but termination without notice is permitted only in the event
of serious misbehavior. In very limited circumstances, such as for temporary project work,
employment contracts might be specified for afixed duration (Bassiouny & El-Bassiouny, 2018).
Additionally, the Act requires employers to let full-time employees to work part-time and to give
precedence to part-time employees when filling full-time positions. Collective bargaining
agreements may trump statutory responsibilities.
American culture may be explained using the historical ideals of liberty and opportunity,
as well as the American way of life as an expression of the pursuit of happiness. As aresult,
Americans are firmly identified since individuals, as they cherish their independence and place
their faith in their own power and aptitude (Rahman & Thelen, 2019). Citizens in the United
States believe they have control over their own fate and route in life. Chance or luck, as well as
privileges, have little or no bearing on accomplishment. Each person is responsible for his or her
7
own accomplishments in terms of ability, experience, and performance. They are self-sufficient,
self-assured, and proactive, and with this sense of self-worth, the success of each individual is
more important than the group’s achievement. The country is hopeful, as exemplified by the
rags-to-riches narrative.
The Germans, on the other hand, prefer a”we” culture in which people identify primarily
with agroup and place ahigh value on solidarity. An extended family may be able to accomplish
better outcomes if they work together. This project is meant to be ateam effort. It is the need to
avoid uncertainty and maintain order that drives colleagues to form aclose bond. The quality of
life and professional relationships are more essential than financial success. The high sense of
community well-being is also compatible with the social market economy in Germany. Efforts
by the government, business, and labor unions to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes (Spitz,
2019). Germans rely on government engagement because the mixed economy system provides
excellent work circumstances, social assistance, and public services. Consensus is necessary for
global well-being.
Discussion on the similarities and differences
Until 2006, the two countries’ national debts as a percentage of GDP were nearly
identical. However, following this date, the US debt has skyrocketed. Inflation rates in both
nations are quite modest, in the single digits. However, there is aregular trend of the US inflation
rate being approximately 1% higher than Germany’s, with Germany averaging about 2% and the
US flirting with 3% (Yanez-Araque, et al., 2021). This demonstrates that the true cost of
financing in the United States has continuously been lower, net of inflation. It’s no surprise that
Germany has afar greater savings rate than the United States, rising from 20% to 25% in the
8
previous ten years, while the US saves rate has decreased from 15% to 10% in the same time
period.
As aresult of Germany’s labor regulations and rising levels of unionization, lower
profitability for German businesses is expected (Sorge, Noorderhaven and Koen, 2015). For
German companies, asmaller income gap and reduced corporation tax burden might lead to
increased consumer expenditure on produced goods and, as aresult, to higher profitability ratios.
Companies in Germany may be unable to enhance production automation due to the presence of
labor unions on company boards and tougher labor rules that make itdifficult to terminate staff
and necessitate hefty severance payments. This may lead to agreater turnover of total assets.
Conclusion
The United States and Germany, respectively, have the world’s top and third highest
volumes of international trade. There is a heated competition between American and German
companies to gain a foothold in their respective domestic markets as well as throughout the
world. This comparison of the financial characteristics of German manufacturing firms with
those in the United States would be beneficial to both corporate leaders and global investors. The
considerable discrepancies in total assets turnover and profitability between the two nations
might be related to variances in legislative regimes and labor environments. Higher labor
expenses and lesser profitability are associated with German legislation, which is particularly
protective of employee rights. With their greater liquidity, lesser debt, and higher profitability,
U.S. manufacturing companies appear to be particularly enticing to overseas investors.
9
References
Bunten, L. (2018). The association of firms ’ digitization determinants and financial
performance (Doctoral dissertation).
Chang, H-O (2009) 23 Things they don ’ttell you about capitalism. London: Penguin.
Dore, R. (2006) Stock Market Capitalism, Welfare Capitalism. Japan and Germany versus the
Anglo-Saxons, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 2: A Society of Long-Term
Commitments (pp. 23-48), Chapter 9: The Co-determined Firm (pp. 182-206), & Chapter
10: The Organised Community (pp. 207-215).
El-Bassiouny, D., & El-Bassiouny, N. (2018). Diversity, corporate governance and CSR
reporting: A comparative analysis between top-listed firms in Egypt, Germany and the
USA. Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal .
Fuest, C., Peichl, A., & Siegloch, S. (2018). Do higher corporate taxes reduce wages? Micro
evidence from Germany. American Economic Review ,108 (2), 393-418.
Gelter, M., & Helleringer, G. (2018). Opportunity makes athief: corporate opportunities as legal
transplant and convergence in corporate law. Berkeley Bus. LJ ,15 ,92.
Kasperson, J. X., & Kasperson, R. E. (2022). Corporate culture and technology transfer. In The
Social Contours of Risk (pp. 118-143). Routledge.
Koen, C. I.(2005) Comparative International Management, London: McGraw-Hill.
M üller, J. M., Buliga, O., & Voigt, K. I. (2021). The role of absorptive capacity and innovation
strategy in the design of industry 4.0 business Models-A comparison between SMEs and
large enterprises. European Management Journal ,39 (3), 333-343.
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Rahman, K. S., & Thelen, K. (2019). The rise of the platform business model and the
transformation of twenty-first-century capitalism. Politics & Society ,47 (2), 177-204.
Sorge, A., Noorderhaven, N., and Koen, C. (2015) Comparative International Management.
Second Edition. Abingdon: Routledge.
Spitz, P. H. (2019). Circumstances are perfect: a new industry grows rapidly. In Primed for
Success: The Story of Scientific Design Company (pp. 57-72). Springer, Cham.
Yanez-Araque, B., Hern ández, J. P. S. I., Gutierrez-Broncano, S., & Jimenez-Estevez, P. (2021).
Corporate social responsibility in micro-, small-and medium-sized enterprises:
Multigroup analysis of family vs. nonfamily firms. Journal of Business Research ,124 ,
581-592.

Case Study Answers: Internal Business Environment- MBA620

Case Study Answers: Internal Business Environment- MBA620