Assignment Answers-Discuss about the Health Challenges GEOG2138

Running head: HEALTH CHALLENGES HEALTH CHALLENGES Name of the student: Name of the university: Author note 1 HEALTH CHALLENGES Introduction: Modern er …

Preview text

Running head: HEALTH CHALLENGES HEALTH CHALLENGES Name of the student: Name of the university: Author note 1 HEALTH CHALLENGES Introduction: Modern era immigration and Refugee has been a significant area of research due to global burden of disease and premature death. Global statistics suggested that 3.6% of the population is international immigrants and encounter health challenges around the globe (Shacknove, 2017, UN, 2020 ). From 2008 to 2013, Australia experienced another period where the numbers of people seeking asylum rapidly increased. In 2019, 7.5 million people born overseas and they are considered as ‘culturally and linguistically diverse population in Australia that encounter anumber of health challenges (AIHW ,2020). Such statistics indicated the need for understanding health challenges experienced by ‘culturally and linguistically diverse population, especially refugee population. The migration has a direct and indirect impact on human health which is reflected in the global burden of health in Australia. For example, the conducted research so far highlighted that human right violation issues, displacement, detention resulted in such as accidental injuries, burns, gastrointestinal illness, cardiovascular events and diabetes (Maldari, Elsley & Abdul Rahim, 2019, AIHW ,2020). In Australia, culturally and linguistically diverse population frequently encounter discrimination and stigma that resulted in PTSD, depression, low help seeking behaviour and underutilisation of health care services (Udah & Singh, 2019) . While Australia remains one of the most welcoming countries in terms of refugee resettlement, limited social policies are developed that support cultural diversity and clinical services in culturally sensitive ways. Therefore, it is fundamental for the Government and Agencies to reflect on such health challenges to develop appropriate intervention and policy (James & Julian, 2021). The paper aims to discuss distinct themes such as health challenges experienced by target population, factors influencing health challenges and policy and interventions in following paragraphs. 2 HEALTH CHALLENGES Discussion: Definition and Health challenges of target population: Culturally and linguistically diverse population are individuals who migrated to foreign country from countries with different cultural values and background from the mainstream culture of migrated country. In Australia many people currently resides who are born Overseas or have parents born overseas , or speak distant languages and hence they are considered as apart of the CALD community. Hence, Among CALD populations, refugees and asylum seekers are the most vulnerable subgroup. From 2008 to 2013, Australia experienced frequent migrations. In 2020, 7.6 million refugees are present in Australia where 29.8% of the population are born overseas. The 2016 Census of Population suggested that approximately 45% of the population have a strong connection overseas (either born overseas or parents born overseas) (Maldari, Elsley & Abdul Rahim, 2019; AIHW ,2020). After World War II, there was an increase in Europeans but the growth of Asians has grown recently which is reflected in the health challenges experienced by the population. For example, 701 per 100,000 population encounter death in Australia compared to Australian born population (608per 100,000 population). The Italian- and Greek-born people are more likely to encounter COPD and congestive cardiac failure while Asian born population experience anaemia. Refugees in Melbourne were are at 3.1 times higher risk of PTSD compared to native Australian population. Shawyer et al. (2017), suggested that 50.4% have experienced trauma and PTSD, 31.3% of them experience prolonged anxiety and depression in their lifestyle. Many emerging research also highlighted that more than 50% of the population experience some form of infection which further increased in COVID 19 due to lack of sanitation and basic resources (Hawkes et al., 2019). 3 HEALTH CHALLENGES Factors influencing health challenges: Several studies have shown that culturally and linguistically diverse population (immigrants), have poor health condition due to stigma and discrimination in foreign place, intergenerational trauma, experience of detention, limited social determinants of health and loss of connection with the society. Migration Act 1958 aims to improve inclusion in the community to improve health challenges but arange of factors limit compliance with the law. Populations from CALD background in Australia experience multiple social disadvantages that are reflected in their access to health care services. CALD (Ziersch et al., 2018, Russo et al, 2020). Population specially refugees, face challenges in new settlements such as inadequate skills and communication for employment. Therefore, the population has a lack of employment ,low wages and ahigher health burden compared to native population. For the CALD population, itis exacerbated by lack of skills and poor lifestyle. Many of those populations have strong socio- cultural ties (food habits, customs, kinship and family) while their children adopt Australian lifestyle. It reflected ahigh risk of illness, stigma and premature death (Khatri & Assefa, 2022; Russo et al, 2020) . Mountain of research suggested that the future of an experience extreme stressful events due to religious social or political expression such as resettlement migration and war. The common experiences include imprisonment, loss of Property, displacement and loss of livelihood (World health organisation, 2016). For example, population belong Afghanistan, Iran, and Sudan moving to Australia experience such loss of connection and livelihood during migration (Comtesse & Rosner, 2019). While loss of connection with culture and extended family members increases vulnerability of this subgroup, experience of torture and lack of access to basic resources (SODH), seclusion and restrains in detention centre more likely to contribute in 4 HEALTH CHALLENGES health challenges (Taylor & Haintz, 2018) .It explains why CALD population of this sub group are at higher risk of suicide, respiratory illness and PTSD compared to healthy and native population of Australia. Recently Australia ’sHumanitarian Program has increased up to 20,019 since 2012 (Australia government, 2022, Albu, 2019). Even though Humanitarian Settlement Program (HSP) supports refugee in Australia since 1981, discrimination and lack of consideration of lived experience are prominent in Australia (Collins et al., 2018, Squires, 2020). Smith et al. (2018), captured lived experience of refugee and immigrant subgroup of CALD population in their study. The findings suggested that they do not feel safe, often excluded from the social network (other members of familiar communities) and frequently experience trauma due to detention. Similar suggested by Spoel et al. (2019), in the mixed method study. The findings reported that more 58% of the population experience some form of violence such as confiscation of money, money physical violence by police and robbery. All of these factors influence poor mental health because experience trauma during detention is triggered when they subjected to discrimination by communities, police and local population. On the other hand, The Australian education system is achallenge for some refugee youth due to language barriers and refugee identity, community disengagement (Khatri & Assefa, 2022; Russo et al, 2020). Many study reveals that Refugee immigrant youth experience high level of discrimination and maladaptation in terms of English proficiency that challenges their ability to learn cultural norms and participate in community activities (Buchanan et al., 2019). It reflected in the labour market because only 69% of the population have employment compared to native Australian population and participation rate remained at 66.4% (Abs.gov.au, 2022, Ziaian et al., 2019, Khawaja et al., 2019) .Apart from stable housing and education opportunities, exclusion from educational institution food affordability and lack of education are major barriers that 5 HEALTH CHALLENGES influence health and wellbeing. CALD population are frequently excluded from labour market due to prejudices, discrimination and identity of refugee ,lack of awareness of current trends (Major et al., 2014 ;van Kooy & Butler, 2022 ,Khawaja et al., 2019 ). While identifying the challenges language barrier is another major predictor of poor health because language barriers can lead to an under-representation of CALD people where English is used in surveys and many of the population unable to interpret data developed in English. Therefore, challenges experience in the health care sector are often limited (World health organisation, 2016, AIHW,2022). While assessing health care services, they encounter challenges regarding their identity and English proficiency as mainstream professionals use labellers, core English and reluctance to communicate while CALD population seek clinical assistance. States and territories have refugee health networks to support health challenges experienced by CALD population such as screening, assisting survivors of torture and trauma, community health outreach to support newly settled point (CALD Group Pty Ltd, Australian Multicultural Community Services, Multicultural Hub Melbourne) (Melbourne support services, 2022). Many of these policies and services are developed from the perception of Australia population without considering the unmet needs and cultural values of CALD population. It intensified the need for developing appropriate interventions to improve quality of care. Policy and intervention recommendation: Approximately 2,399 humanitarian migrants recently resettled in Australia currently and majority of them experience any form of physical or mental health challenges. Resettlement 6 HEALTH CHALLENGES programs are considered as one of the most effective strategies to improve the quality of life and health challenges. For example, “Building aNew Life in Australia ”has been developed for ensuring resettlement of refugees and other parts of the CALD community. It is anational level program that develops amigration network to provide education/language, mental and physical health services, accommodation, and initial food (De Maio et al, 2014, Chen, Ling & Renzaho, 2017; Lau et al., 2018). In this case, in order to improve the compliance with the program, the Australian government can take initiative to develop such asmall program within the community so that the population can make friends in community, social events and cultural events. It will reduce initial triggers of trauma and empower the population to seek clinical services. On the other hand, the Victorian refugee health and wellbeing action plan has already adopted arange of services to improve the quality of life of the population (Health.vic.gov.au, 2022, De Maio et al, 2014 ).Such plans can be developed in each state of Australia where local governments can ensure Accessibility of food, safe drinking water, basic health care and shelter resources. The third intervention can be early screening and free mental health and physical services for the population because highly traumatic experiences often make them vulnerable to health conditions. Similarly, since the basic infrastructure to support interpreters is limited in Australia, it is fundamental to include interpreters in the clinical services and develop contents of health care services in alanguage that can be understandable by the CALD population (Collins et al., 2018). Commonwealth-funded interpreting services are already in place to support populations having distinct backgrounds. However ,low compliance indicates lack of knowledge of the population. Better funding and access to such services within the community is fundamental to reduce health challenges. Similarly, to address health challenges, Australian government can develop Culturally responsive services (awareness of different cultural perceptions of the 7 HEALTH CHALLENGES professional and increased consultation with the families of CALD population) (De Maio et al, 2014). To improve health challenges, Health literacy can be provided in health care and through health promotion by providing health information, personal skills for controlling over life and developing activities that can increase community engagement (Nunn et al., 2021). Service coordination can be improved enhancing consistent transfer of client information and inclusion of liaison officers in the settlement and health care services. Australian government can develop anti-discrimination program to improve inclusion of population within the community so that discrimination in community, workplace and health care challenges. Conclusion: On aconcluding note, itcan be said that CALD community are vulnerable population in Australia which reflected in disease burden of Australia. Refugees in Melbourne were are at 3.1 times higher risk of PTSD compared to native Australian population. CALD population have poor health condition due to stigma and discrimination in foreign place, intergenerational trauma, experience of detention, limited social determinants of health and loss of connection with the society .In order to improve the compliance with the program, the Australian government can take initiative to develop small programs like Building a New Life in Australia within the community so that the population can make friends in community, social events and cultural events. 8 HEALTH CHALLENGES References: Abs.gov.au (2022).Labour Force, Australia. Retrieved 9 may 2022 from https://www.abs.gov.au/statistics/labour/employment-and-unemployment/labour-force- australia/latest-release AIHW (2020). Culturally and linguistically diverse populations. Retrieved 9 May 2022 from https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/f3ba8e92-afb3-46d6-b64c-ebfc9c1f945d/aihw-aus- 221-chapter-5-3.pdf.aspx Albu, D. (2019). UNHCR Global Trends Report: Forced displacement in 2018. Drepturile Omului , 114. https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/drtom2019&div=14&id= &page= Australia government (2022). Australia ’s Offshore Humanitarian Program: 2011 –2012. . Retrieved 9 may 2022 from [http://www.border.gov.au/Search/Pages/Results.aspx?k=Australia%27s%20Offshore%2 0Humanitarian%20Program:%202011 –2012 Buchanan, Z. E., Abu-Rayya, H. M., Kashima, E., Paxton, S. J., & Sam, D. L. (2018). Perceived discrimination, language proficiencies, and adaptation: Comparisons between refugee and non-refugee immigrant youth in Australia. International journal of intercultural relations , 63 , 105-112. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0147176717300652 9 HEALTH CHALLENGES Chen, W., Ling, L., & Renzaho, A. M. (2017). Building anew life in Australia: an analysis of the first wave of the longitudinal study of humanitarian migrants in Australia to assess the association between social integration and self-rated health. BMJ open ,7(3), e014313. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/7/3/e014313?cpetoc=&int_source=trendmd&int_mediu m=trendmd&int_campaign=trendmd Collins, J., Reid, C., Groutsis, D., Watson, K., & Ozkul, D. (2018). Syrian and Iraqi refugee settlement in Australia. ARC Linkage Grant (Victorian Report). Accessed June ,12 (2020), 2019-04. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Derya-Ozkul- 2/publication/325312473_Syrian_and_Iraqi_Refugee_Settlement_in_Australia/links/5b0 50c50aca2720ba099e9e3/Syrian-and-Iraqi-Refugee-Settlement-in-Australia.pdf Comtesse, H., & Rosner, R. (2019). Prolonged grief disorder among asylum seekers in Germany: The influence of losses and residence status. European Journal of Psychotraumatology ,10 (1), 1591330.https://doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2019.1591330 Cooper, S., Enticott, J. C., Shawyer, F., & Meadows, G. (2019). Determinants of mental illness among humanitarian migrants: longitudinal analysis of findings from the first three waves of alarge cohort study. Frontiers in Psychiatry ,545. De Maio, J., Silbert, M., Jenkinson, R., & Smart, D. (2014). Building anew life in Australia: introducing the longitudinal study of humanitarian migrants. Family Matters ,(94), 5-14. https://search.informit.org/doi/abs/10.3316/ielapa.621158546469221 Hawkes, C., Norris, K., Joyce, J., & Paton, D. (2021). Individuals of refugee background resettled in regional and rural Australia: A systematic review of mental health 10 HEALTH CHALLENGES research. Australian Journal of Rural Health , 29 (6), 850-864. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ajr.12785 Health.vic.gov.au (2022) .Victorian refugee health and wellbeing action plan .Retrieved 9 May 2022, from https://www.health.vic.gov.au/sites/default/files/migrated/files/collections/policies-and- guidelines/c/consultation-summary—victorian-refugee-health-and-wellbeing-action-plan- –pdf.pdf James, I., & Julian, R. (2021). Policy implementation and refugee settlement: The perceptions and experiences of street-level bureaucrats in Launceston, Tasmania. Journal of Sociology , 57 (3), 522-540. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1440783320931585 Khatri, R. B., & Assefa, Y. (2022). Access to health services among culturally and linguistically diverse populations in the Australian universal health care system: issues and challenges. BMC Public Health , 22 (1), 1-14. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-022-13256-z Khawaja, N. G., Hebbani, A., Gallois, C., & MacKinnon, M. (2019). Predictors of employment status: A study of former refugee communities in Australia. Australian Psychologist ,54 (5), 427-437. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ap.12388 Lau, W., Silove, D., Edwards, B., Forbes, D., Bryant, R., McFarlane, A., … & O’Donnell, M. (2018). Adjustment of refugee children and adolescents in Australia: outcomes from wave three of the Building aNew Life in Australia study. BMC medicine ,16 (1), 1-17. https://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-018-1124-5 11 HEALTH CHALLENGES Major, G., Terraschke, A., Major, E., & Setijadi, C. (2014). Working it out: Migrants ’ perspectives of social inclusion in the workplace. Australian Review of Applied Linguistics ,37 (3), 249-261. DOI 10.1075/aral.37.3.04maj Maldari, T., Elsley, N., & Abdul Rahim, R. (2019). The health status of newly arrived Syrian refugees at the refugee health service, South Australia, 2016. Australian Journal of General Practice , 48 (7), 480-486. https://search.informit.org/doi/abs/10.3316/INFORMIT.516548934036407 Melbourne support services (2022).Multicultural services. Retrieved 9 may 2022 from https://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/community/health-support-services/multicultural- services/Pages/multicultural-services.aspx Nunn, C., Wilding, R., McKinnon, K., Ku, H. G., Myint, G. P. S. L., Taveesupmai, P., … & Graves, K. (2021). Promoting healthy futures in arural refugee resettlement location: A community-based participatory research intervention. Journal of Sociology , 14407833211003204. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/14407833211003204 Russo, A., Lewis, B., Ali, R., Abed, A., Russell, G., & Luchters, S. (2020). Family planning and Afghan refugee women and men living in Melbourne, Australia: new opportunities and transcultural tensions. Culture, health & sexuality , 22 (8), 937-953. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13691058.2019.1643498 Shacknove, A. E. (2017). Who is a Refugee?. In International Refugee Law (pp. 163-173). Routledge. https://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9781315092478- 7/refugee-andrew-shacknove 12 HEALTH CHALLENGES Shawyer, F., Enticott, J. C., Block, A. A., Cheng, I. H., & Meadows, G. N. (2017). The mental health status of refugees and asylum seekers attending arefugee health clinic including comparisons with amatched sample of Australian-born residents. Bmc Psychiatry, 17(1), 1-12. https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-017-1239-9 Smith, L., Hoang, H., Reynish, T., McLeod, K., Hannah, C., Auckland, S., … & Mond, J. (2020). Factors shaping the lived experience of resettlement for former refugees in regional Australia. International journal of environmental research and public health ,17 (2), 501. https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/17/2/501/htm Spoel, E., Accoe, K., Heymans, S., Verbeeren, P., & de Béthune, X. (2019). Migrants ’social determinants of health: living conditions, violence exposure, access to healthcare. European Journal of Public Health , 29 (Supplement_4), ckz186-034. https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/29/Supplement_4/ckz186.034/5623628?login=tr ue Squires, P. (2020). A scoping review of Australian studies of refugee integration: Popular definitions of integration in the Australian literature. Migration Studies ,8(1), 90-112. https://academic.oup.com/migration/article-abstract/8/1/90/5091585 Taylor, J., & Haintz, G. L. (2018). Influence of the social determinants of health on access to healthcare services among refugees in Australia. Australian journal of primary health ,24 (1), 14-28. https://www.publish.csiro.au/py/py16147 Udah, H., & Singh, P. (2019). Identity, Othering and belonging: toward an understanding of difference and the experiences of African immigrants to Australia. Social Identities ,25 (6), 843-859. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13504630.2018.1564268 13 HEALTH CHALLENGES UN (2020). International Migration 2020 Highlights. Retrieved 12 November 2020 from https://www.un.org/en/desa/international-migration-2020-highlights van Kooy, J., & Butler, C(2022). Disrupted CALD youth employment transitions: a mixed- methods study. Australian Journal of Career Development , 24 (2), 71-80. https://www.avetra.org.au/resources/Documents/Conference%20Archives/Conference%2 0Archive%202021/van_Kooy__Butler- Disrupted_CALD_youth_employment_transitions-a_mixed-methods_study.pdf Wang, L., & Kwak, M. J. (2015). Immigration, barriers to healthcare and transnational ties: A case study of South Korean immigrants in Toronto, Canada. Social Science & Medicine ,133 ,340-348. World health organisation (2016).Promoting the health of refugees and migrants .Retrieved 9 May 2022, from https://www.who.int/migrants/about/framework_refugees-migrants.pdf Ziaian, T., Miller, E., de Anstiss, H., Puvimanasinghe, T., Dollard, M., Esterman, A., … & Stewart-Jones, T. (2019). Refugee youth and transition to further education, training, and employment in Australia: Protocol for a mixed methods study. JMIR research protocols ,8(7), e12632. https://www.researchprotocols.org/2019/7/e12632/ Ziaian, T., Puvimanasinghe, T., Miller, E., De Anstiss, H., Esterman, A., & Dollard, M. (2021). Identity and belonging: refugee youth and their parents ’ perception of being Australian. Australian Psychologist , 56 (2), 123-136. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00050067.2021.1893601 14 HEALTH CHALLENGES Ziersch, A., Miller, E., Baak, M., & Mwanri, L. (2020). Integration and social determinants of health and wellbeing for people from refugee backgrounds resettled in arural town in South Australia: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health , 20 (1), 1-16. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12889-020-09724-z

QUALITY: 100% ORIGINAL PAPER – NO PLAGIARISM – CUSTOM PAPER

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.