Task Solutions-Ethical Issue In Artificial Intelligence: ITC331

Running Head: ETHICAL ISSUE IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
ETHICAL ISSUE IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
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Running Head: ETHICAL ISSUE IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
ETHICAL ISSUE IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Name of the Student
Name of the University
Author Note
1 ETHICAL ISSUE IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Table of Contents
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
Discussion …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
Primary Ethical Issues …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
Pros and Cons of the Issues ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3
Impact on AI-based Decision Support ……………………………………………………………………. 3
Impact on Human Health ……………………………………………………………………………………… 5
Personal Autonomy and Freedom …………………………………………………………………………. 6
Responsibility and Accountability …………………………………………………………………………. 6
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
References …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
2 ETHICAL ISSUE IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
Introduction
Artificial Intelligence has made its way into every person ’s life through various
innovations and integration with numerous other technologies. This technology can be
defined as the stimulation of natural human-like intelligence in computer devices through
intelligent computer programs. Much like any information and communication technology,
the development and involvement of AI have raised concerns regarding issues like privacy
and security. Though technology is making life easier all over the globe the excessive
dependency on it might raise concerns related to ethical issues. Artificial intelligence is
utilized in simple applications to help the user in decision-making. This also means alot of
data about user preferences is acquired by the system to develop an algorithm. In the research
paper by Chang (2021), it is stated that big data is collected for data analytics purposes to
help in improving design making however too much information about an individual creates
aprivacy concern that requires ethical consideration. In this paper, an analysis is performed
on the subject of Artificial intelligence and Information and Communication Technology
related ethical issues. It will focus on innovations that are now part of day to day life of
people and affect a large population. The discussion will be in context with philosophical
views on technology and ethics.
Discussion
Primary Ethical Issues
Philosopher Lewis Mumford has a neutral view on the innovative development of
technology but was also critical of its impact on society as he believed modern technology
has tendencies. to dehumanize society (Stephenson, 2018). He also believed aproper balance
needs to be established between the artificial and the human world. However, one of the
main points that can be identified is the disbalance in the use of technology that is altering
human behavior and human society as well. The difference in behavior can be understood
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from the dependence on various technologies. With support from the AI, users no longer need
to learn or analyze, or do any kind of decision-making. However, along with providing
decision support, these systems must be able to provide decision support that takes ethical
theories like deontological and teleological ethics into consideration. It means that the
system must have the ability to provide both duty-based and result-oriented ethical decisions.
Apart from this, another major issue is the impact of the said technology on the health of
humans. According to statistics, the employment of artificial technology in the healthcare
industry is predicted to significantly increase in the coming few years and expand to amarket
of value 28 billion U.S. dollars (Steward, 2022). This significant increase can be due to the
numerous advantages like assistance in decision making, higher availability of data, and
operating equipment. The increased utilization of such features also implies an increase in
risks related to it that can directly or indirectly impact a patient ’shealth and further raise
ethical concerns regarding the rights of the patient. AI system has also had an impact on
human autonomy as well the freedom of choice. The utilization of the system can raise the
question about the authenticity of the choices made through the technology. The analysis of
the preference based on limited data restricts and interferes with the self-determination rights
of an individual. It further affects the capacity as well as freedom of making choices. Apart
from this, it can also affect the moral obligations and responsibility of duty to others. There
is a lack of accountability and liability for the malfunctioning of Artificial intelligence
technology as the system is considered self-learning and quite independent.
Pros and Cons of the Issues
Impact on AI-based Decision Support
One of the reasons behind the popularity and adoption of AI-based decision support
systems is the ease in problem solving and decisions that are backed up by avast amount of
data. According to the analysis of Kunath & Winkler (2018), AI has an advantage over the
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traditional system as it can efficiently process complex and vast data to predict the
advantages and disadvantages of choices and actions. This can further reduce the risk
involved along with that it provides an opportunity to come up with recommendations and
solutions. Although the system is favorable for diminishing the casualties caused by the
failure due to wrong decisions however it also restricts the possible learning from it such as
failure detection learned from experience. It harms the decision skills of an individual as it
can be better developed by increasing experience as well as learning derived from the
experience (Doyle & Paton,2017). The automatic processing of data to provide solutions can
directly impact the analytical ability as well. In an organization or even at the individual level,
the AI performs that requires analytical learning. It is not only affecting the human required
for skill-based jobs. At the personal level, it negatively influences the development of
analytical intelligence through cognitive thinking and problem-solving activities.
Apart from the impact on learning behavior and analytical abilities, the processing
and output of the decision support system need to align with teleological and deontological
ethics. In moral philosophy, the concept of deontological revolves around ethics in actions or
duties regardless of the evaluation of the consequences. Since the decision support is
associated with the actions or choices involved in proceeding toward atask, itis important to
consider the morality of those actions. A decision support system equipped with AI has the
potential to achieve atask, however, to seek protection, and ensure no harm to humans, these
machines should be able to take correct ethical decisions on their own (Etzioni & Etzioni,
2017). While deontological ethics focus on the actions, teleological ethics focus on the goal
or the consequences. This would mean that while the actions of the system hold moral value
the objective is also morally correct. However, to make sure these ethical concepts are
implemented through AI, it needs to be integrated with the algorithm as the technology itself
is not capable of human-level moral cognition and ethical reasoning.
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Impact on Human Health
One of the sectors that are adopting AI at arapid pace in the healthcare industry and
this can also affect the health of those who are using the services provided by the industry.
According to the views of Shah & Chircu (2018), AI systems are useful in providing doctors
with additional tools to perform better and individualized risk assessments while providing
more comfort to patients and reducing the need for invasive detection methods. Along with
that, the technology is advantageous in improving patient care, by providing monitoring,
analysis, and treatment services without specialist consultations by integrating medical
devices with a knowledge-based system to give general information. Despite numerous
stated advantages, there is ethical concern regarding the privacy of the data of the patient. For
the system to perform disease detection and risk assessments, alarge amount of sensitive data
needs to be acquired from the patients. This raises ethical issues regarding the consent for
data collection, data storage, security, and privacy (Ludwin & Murray, 2017). The storage of
this data is essential for a digitalized system to maintain data integrity as the loss of any
important information like the health report, diagnostic reports, or test records can directly
impact patients’ health. The lack of proper and continuous data affects the quality of
treatment and could result in inaccurate health analysis and incorrect consultation from the
knowledge-based system which is dangerous for the health of patients. Apart from that, the
usage of AI-assisted systems for clinical decisions may give rise to harm to alarge group if
the system develops abias (Roselli, Matthews & Talagala, 2019).
Another ethical issue that is specific to the healthcare industry is regarding the professional
duties of the health practitioners and doctors (Asan, Bayrak & Choudhury, 2020) The clinical
decision support system works better when data is arranged and input by doctors. However,
this causes the doctors to deviate from their duties as they need to perform the work of
researchers as well.
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Personal Autonomy and Freedom
It is evident that Artificial intelligence is now integrated into very basic applications
that help the user decide about day-to-day functions like the media content they consume,
their food preferences, and targeting advertisements. The application that utilizes these is
considered time-saving and convenient. It has handled repetitiveness, increased efficiency,
and personalized content for each individual (Bhbosale, Pujari, & Multani, 2020). However,
dependence on technology for basic decision-making raises the question of the authenticity of
these choices which further highlights the issue of autonomy and freedom of choice of the
user. As the system is generating options or choices according to the data collected by it, the
decision made by the user is highly modified by the system(Sankaran & Markopoulos, 2021).
It restricts the user to make achoice according to the list generated for its algorithm and data
that might not completely define the preferences of an individual. Apart from autonomy, it
also generates the ethical issue of freedom of the user to decide. According to the deliberation
of Ho (2020), AI manipulates the attention of the user and interferes with their rights to
freedom of thinking and mahjong achoice. The algorithm in these applications optimizes
content on various platforms and modifies and limits our choices according to its
computation. Along with autonomy and freedom, the AI-based constraints also limits the
power of decision-making and creativity which further increases the dependency on this
limiting system (Schwitzgebel, & Garza, 2020) Due to alack of understanding of their own
preferences and requirements, people have no choice but to depend on the computations
made by AI algorithms.
Responsibility and Accountability
Responsibility and accountability in ethics define who is answerable for the behavior
of asystem. It refers to the moral acknowledgment of certain actions or practices. Although
the introduction of AI in various systems has reduced the amount of responsibility for various
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tasks from humans and shifted itto the computation of algorithms as they are considered
more efficient and reliable (Villaronga, Kieseberg & Li, 2018). However, itcan create
ambiguity about the responsibility and accountability in case of incorrect behavior. Many
professionals are involved in the development and working of an AI system which includes
the programmer of algorithms, the manufacturer of the system, the operator of the system,
and the owner of the said system. None of these people are directly involved in the actions of
the system as an Artificial intelligence system itself performs decision making. This can
initiate asense of lack of accountability and responsibility among professionals involved in
developing the system and this can negatively impact the quality produced by them
(Hagendorff, 2020). Along with that, italso develops the risk of misfunctioning of the system
and no one can be directly held accountable for it. Apart from the ambiguity of responsibility
of the system, the lack of traceability and lack of clarity restricts for identification of
defaulters (Morley et al., 2020). Hence, This can also result in no corrective actions to avoid
the same problem in the future.
Conclusion
From the above discussion, itcan be concluded that the introduction of Artificial Intelligence
in various industries and numerous daily applications has resulted in the rise of several ethical
issues. Apart from adverse effects like unemployment, AI terrorism, and hacking, there is an
impact on human behavior as well as capabilities. One of the major innovations related to AI
is the decision support system. The ethical issue identified is related to its impact on the
learning capabilities of ahuman as well as their analytical intelligence. Apart from that, it is
also necessary the decision support provided should follow the deontological and teleological
ethics to ensure that the practices suggested by the system and the objective set for the system
both have some moral value. The application of the same system in the healthcare industry
can impact the privacy of the data of the patients. It creates a dilemma as a lack of
8 ETHICAL ISSUE IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
information can also cause malfunctioning of the system that can affect the health of the
patients. The use of artificial intelligence also raises questions about the freedom of choice
and thinking of an individual. The constraints created by the algorithm limit the personal
autonomy of the user too. Since, the decision is ,made by machines and algorithms there is a
lack of responsibility and accountability as well.
9 ETHICAL ISSUE IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
References
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healthcare: focus on clinicians. Journal of medical Internet research ,22 (6), e15154.
Bhbosale, S., Pujari, V., & Multani, Z. (2020). Advantages And Disadvantages Of Artificial
Intellegence. Aayushi International Interdisciplinary Research Journal ,227-230.
Chang, V. (2021). An ethical framework for big data and smart cities. Technological
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