Assessment Answers | Features of Language and Music: PSYC101

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Psychology Research Paper
Name of the Student
Name of the School
Name of the Course
Name of the Instructor
Date of Submission
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Language and …

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1
Psychology Research Paper
Name of the Student
Name of the School
Name of the Course
Name of the Instructor
Date of Submission
2
Language and music are processed and interpreted by the same systems of the brain.
Researchers have debated whether or not music and language depend on common processes for
interpretation in mind for along time (Purwins et al., 2019). Recent evidence from researchers at
the University of Georgetown has shown that music and language processing and interpretation
do indeed rely on the same brain systems. Two distinctive features of both language and music
rely on the same two systems of memory in the brain (Wang & Agius, 2018). The first brain
system helps human beings memorize information in both music and language, and itis based on
the temporal lobes. An example is the meanings and words in the language and popular melodies
in music.
The second brain system helps people unconsciously acquire and use the rules that
characterize both music and language, based on the frontal lobes. An example is the syntax rules
in sentences and the harmony rules in music. Michael Ullman, professor of psychology,
neuroscience, linguistics, and neurology, states that the processing and interpretation rules
depend on the onset of frontal lobe structures, which overlap in music and language. However,
on top of the rules, both music and language critically need the memorization of arbitrary figures
such as melodies and words (Atherton et al., 2018).
The study confirms that one set of structures of the brain lies beneath rules in both music
and language. It also endorses that adifferent system of the brain contains memorized details in
both domains; therefore, both music and language processing and interpretation depend on two
different brain systems where arbitrary information is in one case and rules in the other case
(Besedov áet al., 2019). To help understand this comparison between language and brain
processing and interpretation more, prof. Ullman and Dr. Miranda using the Event-related
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possibilities technique conducted aresearch that included sixty four adults, where the electrical
action of the brain was gauged by the use of electrodes.
The involved participants listened to 180 snippets of tunes where one part of the melodies
was sections from popular songs with most participants. The other part incorporated tunes from a
novel that Dr. Miranda had collected. The novel melody had three versions, every one well-
known, were created, which included the original melodies. These melodies involved adeviant
note called an out-of-key as aviolation of the music rules, and melodies comprising of adeviant
note called an in-key. An in-key deviant note contravened the listener ’sreminiscence of the tune,
for the listeners with amelody. Even though the tune played musical and itdid not contravene a
part of music instructions, itdiffered from what the person said they had learned. Since the
listeners didn ’tknow the tune, the in-key deviant notes in novel melodies didn ’tviolate memory.
The out-of-key deviant notes included musical rules violations in both novel and well-known
melodies. In addition, out-of-key deviant notes contravened reminiscence in well-known
melodies (Atherton et al., 2018).
Ullman and Miranda scrutinized the brain waves of the participants. They found that
violation of memories and rules in music matched the two brain wave patterns observed in the
prior studies of memory and rule contraventions in language. The in-key violations of familiar
melodies caused brain waves similar to N400, which has often been associated with word
violations. An example is “I’llhave my tea with coffee and concrete. ”Violations of the Out-of-
key of the novel and popular melodies caused over frontal lobes electrodes pattern of brain wave
same with that for defilements of rules in music and language both as found before. Violations of
the Out-of-key to popular tunes also caused apattern of the brain action referred to as an N400 as
projected because these are defilements of both the memories and the rules. This proves that
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these two features of music, which are memorized melodies and rules, rest on two distinctive
brain systems (Rauschecker, 2021). The brain systems root memorized information and rules in
language. This, however, determines the processing and interpretation of music with regard to
language processing.
Every artist wants their music to go viral, and also consumers are prompted
psychologically to listen to hit songs (Mentzer et al., 2020). Polyphonic HMI is acompany
jointly founded in Barcelona and Spain that focuses on music analysis using the hit song science
(HSS) to determine if music will be ahit song. This hit song science uses statistical techniques
and mathematical algorithms to determine on ascale of 1to 10 the possibility of the success of a
song in the present market. Certain patterns within asong, which include intro, chorus, rhythm,
bridge, outro, and others, are secluded and later mapped onto amusical universe which is a
multidimensional grid. Songs that are alike within the universe after mathematical breakdown
form avariety of clusters. These clusters provide detailed information on the probability of a
song or an album hitting. The results produced are significantly considered with regards to
aligning current successes. If the song falls outside acluster, there is apossibility that the song
won ’tbecome ahit song, but if the song falls within acluster, the possibility of becoming ahit
song is very high (Berger & Packard, 2018). This interpretation of music has helped to produce
studios determine the future of their works of art.
Training of music has gained enormous interest recently in education as rising
neuroscientific studies portray its positive impacts on the development of the brain. Research has
demonstrated that musical training benefits extend beyond talent and directly last well into
adulthood. For example, children who pass through musical training have better verbal memory,
reading ability, ability to execute functions, and accuracy in second language pronunciation.
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Learning to play an instrument during childhood may raise academic performance and IQ in
young adults because the gradation of functional and structural adaptation in the brain correlates
with the practice duration and intensity. The impacts of cognitive development rely on the timing
of musical initiation because of the sensitive periods which occur during development and other
modulating variables (Schneider, Hunter & Bardach, 2019). Musical training, therefore, boosts
the range of skills, promoting cognitive development. These mechanisms foster the musical
talent of an individual.
Listening to music can be ahighly enjoyable activity because music communicates
moods, states of mind, or emotions that are advantageous to our quality of living. Music
enjoyment involves the reward system, where experiencing pleasurable music can cause the
release of dopamine in the reward system called mesolimbic (Goupil & Aucouturier, 2019).
Studies show that engagement with music can trigger the same psychological and biological
responses linked with highly fundamental rewards such as money, food, road trips, and others.
Musical enjoyment is commonly known as chills. It can be experienced through bodily reactions
such as Goosebumps that most people experience while listening to particular musical lines or
passages (Omigie & Ricci, 2022). The enjoyment is sometimes measured by the amount of
money someone is ready to pay willingly for acertain musical piece.
Musical pleasure can also be prompted by surprises and expectations. A lot of enjoyment
emanates from the music pattern, including melody, sudden changes, and rhythm. A sudden
change in the tempo and intensity is among the primary means by which music evokes astrong
response emotionally in the listeners (Mencke et al., 2019). Composers of music can meet
expectations, violate expectations, or even hold them. With frequent exposure, the music
becomes less enjoyable after along listening period. That ’swhy liking music drops over time
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because nothing is better than its first time. We get used to music as human beings, and itis not
enjoyable anymore. Therefore these are the cognitive mechanisms that govern musical
enjoyment by its consumers.
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References
Atherton, R. P., Chrobak, Q. M., Rauscher, F. H., Karst, A. T., Hanson, M. D., Steinert, S. W., &
Bowe, K. L. (2018). Shared processing of language and music. Experimental Psychology .
Berger, J., & Packard, G. (2018). Are atypical things more popular?. Psychological
Science ,29 (7), 1178-1184.
Besedov á,P., Vy šata, O., Mazurov á,R., Kopal, J., Ondr ákov á,J., Vali š,M., & Proch ázka, A.
(2019). Classification of brain activities during language and music perception. Signal,
Image and Video Processing ,13 (8), 1559-1567.
Goupil, L., & Aucouturier, J. J. (2019). Musical pleasure and musical emotions. Proceedings of
the National Academy of Sciences ,116 (9), 3364-3366.
Mencke, I., Omigie, D., Wald-Fuhrmann, M., & Brattico, E. (2019). Atonal music: Can
uncertainty lead to pleasure?. Frontiers in Neuroscience ,12 ,979.
Mentzer, K., Galante, Z., Rojek, B., & Cardarelli, R. (2020). Music march madness: predicting
the winner of locura de marzo.
Omigie, D., & Ricci, J. (2022). Accounting for expressions of curiosity and enjoyment during
music listening. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts .
Purwins, H., Li, B., Virtanen, T., Schl üter, J., Chang, S. Y., & Sainath, T. (2019). Deep learning
for audio signal processing. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, 13(2),
206-219.
Rauschecker, J. P. (2021). Central Auditory Processing. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of
Neuroscience .
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Schneider, C. E., Hunter, E. G., & Bardach, S. H. (2019). Potential cognitive benefits from
playing music among cognitively intact older adults: ascoping review. Journal of
Applied Gerontology ,38 (12), 1763-1783.
Wang, S., & Agius, M. (2018). The neuroscience of music; areview and summary. Psychiatria
Danubina ,30 (suppl. 7), 588-594.

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