Assessment Solutions | Effect Of Osmosis On Potato: AP0516

Running head: BIOLOGY
EFFECT OF OSMOSIS ON POTATO
Name of the Student
Name of the University
Author Note
1 BIOLOGY
Table of Contents
1. Introdu …

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Running head: BIOLOGY
EFFECT OF OSMOSIS ON POTATO
Name of the Student
Name of the University
Author Note
1 BIOLOGY
Table of Contents
1. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2
1.1. Literature Review …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2
1.2. Research question …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
1.3. Aim ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
1.4. Hypothesis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
2. Method and Apparatus …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
2.1. List of Apparatus ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
2.2. Method ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5
3. Results …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
3.1. Results table …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7
3.2. Graph of results ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 7
4. Analysis Interpretation …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
4.1. Result analysis …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
4.2. Interpretation of results ……………………………………………………………………………………… 9
5. Evaluation and Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
5.1. Evaluation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 10
5.2. Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12
References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
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1. Introduction
1.1. Literature Review
Water potential is aterm, which can defined as the water potential energy per unit the
pure water volume. This function signifies the tendency of water to start moving from one to
another area due to the process of osmosis. The concept of water potential has been found to
be very useful in plants since osmosis is mainly studied in plant cells (Al-Obaidi, Kara-Zaitri
and Mujtaba 2017 ).
Water potential has been described as the water molecule tendency to move out of the
solution. This movement has been found to be dependent on how much water is present in the
solution in relation to the solute molecules. The addition of solutes into pure water has been
found to decrease the water potential since the ratio between solute and solvent in the
solution decreases (Chen and Qin 2019 ).
Osmosis has been described as the moving of water molecules across the
semipermeable membrane. This movement has been found to occur from a higher water
potential to aregion of lower water potential. This movement occurs till the concentrations in
both the sides of the semipermeable membrane equilibrates. Tonicity has been referred to as
the relative concentration of solutes in the two regions which are separated by the semi-
permeable membrane. Tonicity comparison can be done to determine the osmosis direction
across the cell membrane (Goodhead and MacMillan 2017 ).
A piece of literature has illustrated the process of osmosis in onions and hen ’seggs.
Onion peels were submerged in concentrated HCl to dissolve shell contents and then expose
the same to semipermeable membrane. The specific egg was specifically placed in the water
beaker in order to observe the size based alterations which has occurred because of osmosis.
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While placing the eggs in beaker, the same has been found to be swelled up. This swelling of
eggs have been observed due to the process of osmosis (Hafiz et al. 2020 ).
Another experiment was used to demonstrate the osmosis process with eggs. The egg
was placed in pure water. This caused swelling up of the egg since the molecules of water
from beaker has then passed through the SP (semi-permeable) membrane. The molecules of
water were moved across the semipermeable membranes of eggs and move into the solution.
Since the water potential of egg has been observed to be lower than water, the movement
occurred like that. The outside movement of water was guided by the process of osmosis and
the presence of semi-permeable membrane in eggs (Imiete and Viacheslovovna Alekseeva
2018 ).
Then the egg was placed in CaCO3 saturated solution. The egg was found to lose
mass since egg cells have higher water potential than the water potential of the solution. This
was because of the fact that egg cells have very low water potential in water but have higher
water potential when compared to the solution.
Another research study was conducted with dry beans. This experiment was found to
be similar to the resins-based experiment for osmosis observations in laboratories. Two
specific cups of beans were taken. One cup was taken and dissolved in fresh saltwater and the
other cup was submerged in tap water. The remaining cup of beans were used as the control
for the experiment (Hafiz et al. 2018 ).
Both the specific outcomes of the experiment have been found to be detailed perfectly
as compared to how the warm water potential associated solutes affect the osmotic rate and
the plant type. Salt water has been found to comprise of thousands of PPM or parts per
million of salt as compared to tap water which contains 200 –1000 ppm of salt.
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The experimental outcomes specifically demonstrated the osmosis process. The
experimental outcomes have demonstrated since the solutes of aseparate water potential was
found to affect the osmosis rate in dry beans and it has been observed that similar
investigations are also in the process (Lankford and Friedrichsen 2012 ).
1.2. Research question
“How does the solution of various concentrations of solution change the mass of
potatoes present in cylinders during osmosis? ”.
1.3. Aim
“The investigation has aimed at measuring the change in percentage masses of potato,
which is submerged in different sucrose concentrations for observing the effects of osmosis.
This data will also be utilised in order to analyse the isotonic point value.
1.4. Hypothesis
The potatoes will gain mass at very low concentrations of sucrose because of the fact
that the solution will be hypotonic in nature. The potato cylinders will specifically lose mass
at very high concentrations of sucrose because of the fact that the solutions are hypertonic to
potato cells. However, there will be no change in mass when the sucrose concentration is
same as the concentration inside the cells. This will be the equilibrium state of the movement
process.
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2. Method and Apparatus
2.1. List of Apparatus
Name Quantity
Sucrose 500 cc
Digital balance 1
Digital stopwatch 1
Test tube rack 1
Boiling tubes 1
Potato 1
Cork borer 1
Scalpel 1
Water tile 1
Marker 1
Deionized water 500 cc
2.2. Method
1. Using a marker pen for labelling the boiling tubes with proper values of the needed
concentrations and arranging them in the racks of test tubes.
2. Using ameasuring cylinder for the preparation of 20 cc of every solute by the addition of
stock sucrose solution and deionized water in appropriate proportions.
3. A cork borer will be used for the extraction of six potato cylinders and will be placed in the
sucrose solutions.
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4. Six beakers will be filled with 200 mL water and then aset of beakers will be arranged in
line with the set of 6potatoes.
5. The beakers will be labelled as 0.0,0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0.
6. A weighing scale will be used for the measurement of the masses of potatoes.
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3. Results
3.1. Results table
Sucrose
concentration
Initial mass Final mass
percentage
Change in the
percentage of
mass
Percentage of
mass change
0.0 1.65 1.76 0.11 6.6%
0.2 1.65 1.68 0.03 1.81%
0.4 1.65 1.58 -0.07 -4.24%
0.6 1.65 1.48 -0.17 -10.30%
0.8 1.65 1.40 -0.25 -15.11%
1.0 1.65 1.34 -0.31 -18.78%
3.2. Graph of results
Fig 1: Sucrose concentration vs the mean mass change associated with cylinders
Source: MS Excel
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4. Analysis Interpretation
4.1. Result analysis
Figure 1has been found to indicate that there is specifically acorrelation which is negative,
in between the mean mass change in potato and sucrose concentration. As the sucrose
concentration is increased the mean change in mass of potato cylinders were found to have
bene decreased. The data associated with the above graph has been found to represent the
sucrose concentrations at which there is also aspecific increase in mean mass. The highest
change in mass was observed for the lowest concentration of sucrose. As the concentration of
sucrose went on increasing, the mass value has been found to increase and be smaller.
Between 0.2 to 0.4, the value of change in mass was found to have entered in the negative
region (Kim and Heldman 2021).
The x axis intercept is approximately around 0.30 units which represents the point
where there is neither adecrease or increase in the potato masses. The overall potato masses
remained the same at this point of the graph. The data shows that the x axis represents the
concentrations at which the overall decrease in the potato masses were observed. The
decrease in mass was found to be at asteady rate from 0.4 to 0.6 units. After the above stated
point, the decrease rate has been found to become lower and there is agradient in the line
also. The highest decrease in mass was found to be 16.37 percent and has occurred at the
increased concentration of sucrose solution (Pollen 2017).
The greatest difference between the mean change of mass was 18.78%. This change
in mass was observed for the highest concentration of sucrose. The greatest difference in
mass was found to be in between 0.6 and 0.4 units. This difference was 6.06%. After this
point, the decreasing of mass rate has been found to be lower. The same was indicated by the
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gradient of the line. The highest mass decrease can thus be stated to be justified (Hafiz et al.
2021).
The results can thus be stated to prove that as the increase in sucrose concentration,
the mass changes of potato cylinders decreases. No specific outliers were found to be
associated with the experiment.
4.2. Interpretation of results
At the concentration of 0.00 units (only deionized water), there was a very high
increase in mass of the potato cylinders. At the same concentration, where the solution
contains only deionized water, which was hypotonic to potato cells. Theoretically, the highest
water potential value can be stated to be zero, when there is no solute in the solution
(Lankford and Friedrichsen 2012). Since osmosis is mostly researched in plant cells, the idea
of water potential has shown to be particularly beneficial in plants. The tendency of water
molecules to flow out of asolution is known as water potential. The amount of water in the
solution in proportion to the solute molecules has been discovered to affect this movement.
Because the ratio between solute and solvent drops when solutes are added to pure water, the
water potential is reduced (Jamil et al. 2020).
The rate of mass increase can be stated to become lower at a concentration of 0.2
units. This is because of the fact that at this point, the concentration of the solution was
higher since it contains specific solutes. However, the total movement of water across the
semi-permeable membrane by osmosis can be stated to remain towards the potato cells
direction. However, it has been observed that the net movement of water across the
membrane is dependent on the water potential (ZHENG et al. 2017).
The xintercept has been found to be around 0.3 units. This point is called the isotonic
point where no change is observed in mass due to the process of osmosis. No overall net
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movements of water across the semipermeable is observed since there is no generation of
concentration gradient. Moreover, it has been observed that isotonic environments do not
allow the movements of water across membranes.
5. Evaluation and Conclusion
5.1. Evaluation
The method was used in order to mitigate the inconsistencies as well as errors by as
much as possible. The same potato was used for the extraction of every cylinder for ensuring
the fact that the experiment remained fair in every repeat. The potato, which was used for the
experiment was fresh since old and stale potatoes tends to have very low water content. The
lower water content has been found to be amajor problem in experiments which involves
osmosis (Pollen 2017).
The process of osmosis in onions and hen’s eggs was depicted in apiece of literature.
To disintegrate the shell and expose it to a semipermeable membrane, onion peels were
immersed in strong HCl. The egg was placed in the water beaker expressly to study the size
variations caused by osmosis. When placing the eggs in the beaker, it was discovered that
they had puffed significantly. The mechanism of osmosis is responsible for the enlargement
of eggs. Another experiment with eggs was done to explain the osmosis process. The egg was
submerged in clear water (Pollen ).Thus, the findings can be stated to be justified.
Care was taken in order to ensure that every cylinder was free from the remaining
parts of potato skins, which has very less permeability to water than the potato tissue which
could have prevented osmosis. After the point of isotonicity, the potato cylinders start to lose
mass. This observation has been found to be effective because of the fact that the
concentration at which the greatest change in mass is observed. In other words, it can be
stated that the net movement of water from and to either sides of the membrane is initiated
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after the isotonic environment is changed. As soon as the isotonic environment is changed, or
the concentration of sucrose increases from isotonicity, the mass of potato cylinders
decreases (Goodhead and MacMillan 2017). The cylinders were specifically blotted as dry as
possible while measuring the final and initial masses. This step was taken in order to remove
the excess water which was present in different amounts on the cylindrical surfaces. Removal
of excess water will be associated with better measurements of osmosis. The topmost pan
balance was specifically wiped and cleaned after every reading.
This step was taken in order to improve the experimental reliability. A broad range of
sucrose solution concentration can be stated to be useful in the prevention of data saturation.
The same can also allow more reliable estimations of the isotonic point. This is required in
order to find out the interpolation point for the inclusion of data which is intermittent in
nature. However, it can be stated that more repeats of the experiment will be effective in
improving the reliability collected data (ZHENG et al. 2019).
The experiment can be stated to have been improved by the control of temperature,
that is amajor factor affecting the rate of osmosis. The same can be stated to be effective in
achieving equilibrium in the boiling tubes in order to set the temperature in water bath.
Another major way of obtaining better and accurate results will be to keep the cylinders in
submerged conditions for long time so that osmosis fully occurs.
The errors due to the loss of precisions of the equipment including digital balance,
could have affected the reading accuracies. The same can be improved in the investigations
by using better equipment that can measure to abetter and precise value.
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5.2. Conclusion
On aconcluding note, it can be said that the selected hypothesis was then supported
by the trend of data which has shown that there is acylinder mass gain at very low sucrose
concentrations and the loss of mass of cylinders at high sucrose concentrations. Effective
estimation of isotonic point was performed and the results were successful in reaching the
goals of the experiment.
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References
Al-Obaidi, M.A., Kara-Zaitri, C. and Mujtaba, I.M., 2017. Removal of phenol from
wastewater using spiral-wound reverse osmosis process: model development based on
experiment and simulation. Journal of water process engineering ,18 ,pp.20-28.
Chen, C. and Qin, H., 2019. A mathematical modeling of the reverse osmosis concentration
process of aglucose solution. Processes ,7(5), p.271.
Goodhead, L.K. and MacMillan, F.M., 2017. Measuring osmosis and hemolysis of red blood
cells. Advances in physiology education ,41 (2), pp.298-305.
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nanofiltration with reverse osmosis in reclaiming tertiary treated municipal wastewater for
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biology Teacher ,74 (6), pp.392-399.
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Lee, J., Choi, J.Y., Choi, J.S., Chu, K.H., Yoon, Y. and Kim, S., 2017. A statistics-based
forward osmosis membrane characterization method without pressurized reverse osmosis
experiment. Desalination ,403 ,pp.36-45.
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