Assignment Answers Pdf Of Building Structure Technology:H299HNC

HNC Civil Engineering
City and State
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HNC Civil Engineering
City and State
Date of Submission
Table of Contents
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
LO3 Identify the different types of civil engineering/infrastructure technology used in support of
buildings. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
P6 Describe techniques used for remediating the site prior to construction commencing. ………………….. 4
P7 Describe the types of substructure works carried out by civil engineers. …………………………………….. 6
M4 Compare different types of structural frames used to carry the primary and secondary elements of
the superstructure. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
LO4 Illustrate the supply and distribution of arange of building services and how they are accommodated
within the building. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
P8 Describe the supply arrangements for primary services. ………………………………………………………….. 13
P9 Explain the distribution arrangements for primary services. …………………………………………………….. 15
M5 Demonstrate the elements of the superstructure used to facilitate the primary services. ……………… 17
D3 Appraise how the distribution of the impact of the primary service on the overall design of the
building. ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19
Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20
References: ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23
The objective of this paper is to investigate the technical principles that have been and are now
employed in the construction of a structure Building technology has enabled the design and
development of buildings that are safer, more cost effective, and more visually beautiful than
those created in the past. Graham (2013) defines construction technology as a collection of
various software applications and technologically advanced tools, machinery, and modifications
used during the construction stage of a project to facilitate advancements in the field of
construction method, including automated and quasi-construction equipment. The first portion of
the report describes the various types of civil engineering or networking communications that
were employed during the construction of a structure. The following section illustrates how
various building services are delivered and dispersed, as well as how they are housed within a
structure. Diagrams will be utilized throughout this report to help in the understanding of how a
building structure is constructed.
For avery long time, the fundamental principles of construction technology remained virtually
constant. Technical innovation, as well as processes and materials used to complete these key
components, have altered and improved in recent years, allowing for the presentation and
provision of higher-quality structures. Because of the ongoing need for and scarcity of resources,
environmental and energy performance criteria have increased, and as aresult, there has been
greater flexibility in addressing the rising financial, environmental, legal, and economic
challenges that have developed. In order to fulfil the overall viability of the building technology
building evaluation, avariety of functional character attributes and design aspects will be taken
into consideration. When it comes to building elements, the study will cover numerous technical
ideas that are employed to enable their construction, starting with the foundation and moving to
the finishing aspect, all while taking into account various functional qualities and design
LO3 Identify the different types of civil engineering/infrastructure technology used in support of
P6 Describe techniques used for remediating the site prior to construction commencing.
Surveys and reports prepared as part of a construction project’s pre-design analysis serve to
ensure that the building can be constructed as fast as feasible. The most significant pre-design
inquiry is to evaluate the present condition of the land or existing site, which is accomplished
through soil testing and existing building evaluations. When it comes to project planning, the
information gathered through surveys such as these is crucial since it aids in the identification of
possible stumbling blocks to development. Geological investigations help to identify areas that
are at risk of subsidence and landside failure, while soil testing help to determine the level of
bedrock, the depth of ground water, the bearing capacity, as well as the ability to swell and
Prior to starting construction on anew structure, it is required to clean up the site and make it
ready for construction to take place. The recovery of soil is accomplished by the application of
both above- and below-ground water treatment methods. The term “remediation technique”
refers to amethod of addressing an environmental danger that makes use of chemical, physical,
and biological factors to do so. Land maintenance can be undertaken on the construction site as a
result of improving the value of the construction. Due to the fact that bioremediation procedures
are acceptable for use in the construction of buildings, they are used to reduce the hydrocarbon
content of soil. When it comes to keeping construction sites clean and reducing pollution, bio-
filtration is akey technology that may be used during the construction process to help achieve
these goals. The growth of big minerals from minute particles is aided by heterotrophic aerobic
bacteria and their alignment with the biopile. This land, on the other hand, must be governed.
Capping is another physical remediation technique that may be used before a structure is
constructed. According to Pan (2013), capping can aid in the cleansing of the soil. Moreover, the
application of capping assists in the elimination of minute particles within afew hours of their
introduction. A separation system is required during the construction of astructure in order to
better aid in the removal of pollutants from the air (Pekuri, 2011, pp.39-58). The air-drying
technique should be utilized to eliminate soil pollutants prior to commencing construction. It is
necessary to combine the radiation sorting strategy with the electronic beam irradiation method
in order to get a cleaner soil surface (Belyaev and Sazonov, 2010, pp. 815 –825). These
techniques are effective in protecting both groundwater and surface water. The presence of
hydrogen ions and hydroxides in the soil neutralizes the contaminated chemical that has already
been introduced (Lee et al, 2017, pp. 121-132). As aresult of the interaction between hydrogen
ions and water, carbon dioxide and water are produced in the atmosphere. Mercury solvent
extraction and mercury abstraction are the two most used procedures for extracting mercury from
soil and ground surface water, respectively (Pekuri, 2011, pp, 39-58). A variety of dangerous and
lethal compounds can be formed as aresult of the use of the mercury extraction procedure in its
many forms. Because the extraction of mercury necessitates the use of aqueous stream treatment,
the bi-products produced during the process are toxic and toxicose. The application of modern
technologies is therefore critical in ensuring that the construction project is turned into asafe and
reliable building.
The pre-design phase of the suitable tests happens when more funds are available and before the
design phase. During this stage, research and studies are carried out to assess space requirements.
Also, the site’s restrictions and prospects are investigated (Hershberger, 2015). A cost-benefit
analysis is also performed to determine if the project should be approved or denied. The budget
available in this pre-design phase varies based on external and internal factors, and it decides
which investigations are prioritised (Arefeen, Liu, Xiao and Jiang, 2018). The funds available
may construct athorough project programme and address specific technical challenges to define
the project’s budget, scope, and timetable. Generally, the stages include:
ï‚· Planning
ï‚· Analyse Site
ï‚· Existing Buildings
ï‚· Data gathering
ï‚· coding
ï‚· Construction costs
ï‚· Infrastructure and Facility Analysis
Pre-design work includes surveys, studies, and initiatives like soil samples and modern surveys
to assess the current site and land. The results of the surveys are then utilised to identify potential
obstacles to aproject and its design (Naqvi, Akhtar, Zaid and Sadique, 2020). The geotechnical
studies will also give information on external dangers such as landslides. Rather, the soil samples
will help determine the subsurface water’s capacity to shrink and swell. Compiling all of these
studies will result in the most efficient and effective land substructure (Hershberger, 2015)
P7 Describe the types of substructure works carried out by civil engineers.
There is awide range of substructures built by civil engineers over the course of abuilding’s
construction. A foundation and substructures, according to Salati (2017), are the lowest
components of abuilding that are generally positioned below ground level and act as aconduit
for the transmission of superstructure loads to the supporting soil. Another way to phrase it is
that afoundation is the section of abuilding that is in direct touch with the ground and that is
responsible for carrying the weight of the structure downward. When the expenses of the
building are determined, it is simple to calculate the cost and budget for the project. The project
team will be able to plan and design the building more effectively if they use the findings of this
research. The discovery and remediation of land contamination (Lee, 2013) is frequently
performed as part of the pre-design analysis research in order to prepare for the installation of
foundations and excavation. Because these measures are expensive, it is vital to have knowledge
about them prior to designing them. Once the soil has been effectively rectified, civil engineers
may estimate the cost of the foundation based on the proposed design and the materials that will
be employed. Whenever itis determined that the ground is inappropriate for the construction of a
building, the piling technique is used to stabilize the ground. The piling technique, on the other
hand, refers to amethodology in which large piles and excavation are put in order to create a
foundation for building projects and to maintain the structural integrity of those buildings for the
long term. During the design and setting-out phases of the construction project, the civil engineer
in charge of the building’s construction specifies the amount and position of the piles to be used.
Construction of stable foundations is accomplished via the use of awide range of specialized
techniques and equipment. It is essential that the substructure be supported by a strong and
reliable piling system, which can be comprised of stripe footings, individual footings, pile
foundations, and shallow foundations (Pekuri, 2011, pp. 39-58). The pilling system’s shallow
base is also referred to as “open footing” in reference to the fact that it is open at the bottom.
Substructure construction makes use of a single tooting technique to reach other areas of the
project. The ability to maintain the soil’s bearing capacity and weight is easier to achieve when
you are concentrated.
It is necessary to have afundamental footing design in order to accomplish the desired design
structure, and asuitable design may be assessed by examining the existing and new structures of
the building in question (ZHU, and TANG, 2011). It is necessary to plan and construct the
column such that itmaintains its desired shape once the load-bearing capability of the column
has been computed (Salati and Mirkovi, 2017, pp.103-109). The major responsibility of a
construction engineer is to evaluate the shallow foundation of astructure as well as the bearing
capacity of the soil (Murray, and Dainty, 2013). The quantity of ground support, on the other
hand, is directly proportional to the amount of building capacity. Construction plans must be
approximated in order to assure the structural integrity of the structure. The strip footing is used
to sustain the weight of the wall and to prevent the wall from collapsing. For the most part, the
strip foundation is still in use, though. During the construction of antique structures, engineers
employed the lone column as afoundation to save on labor costs. It may be necessary to employ
pile foundations to provide support in order to reinforce the weak soil surface (Pekuri, Haapasalo,
and Herrala, 2011, pp.39-58). The pile foundation is used to assist the construction engineer in
the design of astructure, which is the responsibility of the construction engineer. Additionally, a
piling foundation is used to support large constructions such as skyscrapers and other tall
M4 Compare different types of structural frames used to carry the primary and secondary
elements of the superstructure.
The basic and secondary main members of the superstructures can be performed by avariety of
structural frames. But in asuperstructure, the fundamental building blocks are walls and columns.
However, the most critical sections of abuilding’s superstructures are:
ï‚· Floor
ï‚· Doors & Window
ï‚· Drip-course
ï‚· Sun-shade
ï‚· Parapet
ï‚· Lintel
ï‚· Roof
In addition to being used in the planning and development of astructure’s interior features, these
components are also utilised to meet certain requirements and values that are necessary to
comply with building codes for residential homes.
Building foundations are critical components of every construction project because they provide
anumber of crucial functions. The fundamental structure is composed of beams, columns, and
braces. The primary functions of the core structure’s essential components are to aid in the
upright construction of structures. On the other hand, secondary components are qualities that are
added to astructure in order to improve its overall appearance.
A superstructure’s columns and walls are merely constructed to serve as arepresentation of the
overall type of superstructure that is being constructed. The roof, floor, lintel, parapet, drip
course, sunshade, as well as the doors and windows, are some of the most essential components
of the superstructure that must be taken into consideration while designing the building. Making
these sorts of designs is essential for achieving the intended internal design qualities as well as
satisfying specified values and standards that are necessary to be met in order to comply with
building rules for residential buildings (Arefeen, Liu, Xiao, and Jiang, 2018).
It is vital to insulate soundproof walls in order to achieve the required degree of thermal
performance, as shown in the illustration, while considering the superstructure element of the
building. It is also necessary that the insulation be in conformity with current requirements. In
part due to the fact that major commercial buildings are constructed with the assistance of
massive concrete PAD foundations, they can be constructed relatively quickly when extending or
allocating large expansion areas for storage purposes (Hershberger, 2015). Aside from that, the
design and construction of the superstructure incorporates the primary protecting, enclosing, and
supporting components of the building. Given the greater level of access between levels and the
wider dispersion of space across the building’s interior, the primary structural elements are
composed of walls, floors and roofs as well as stairwells, windows and doors, flashing and
ceilings, among other things (Naqvi, Akhtar, Zaid and Sadique, 2020).
Slabs, windows, and doors, for example, are generally incorporated into the shear walls of a
structure to provide structural support (Zavalishin, Belyaev, and Sazonov, 2010, pp.815-825).
Secondary structural frames are less important than primary structural frames since they assist in
stabilizing the overall structure of the building. As well as these structural elements, the roof
girder, column, and main support beam are also included in the major component.
LO4 Illustrate the supply and distribution of arange of building services and how they are
accommodated within the building.
P8 Describe the supply arrangements for primary services.
“Primary services” are the most important aspects of modern-day building construction (Lee,
2013). Gas, electricity, water, telecommunications, and drainage services, on the other hand, are
the most important fundamental services. Because of the development of advanced electrical
items that are not reliant on gas supply, itis becoming increasingly rare for building construction
to use gas as afuel source.
Electrical, heating, plumbing, and other essential services are just afew of the many that go into
the construction of astructure. In civil engineering, proper elective electrical design is essential
to the successful completion of abuilding’s construction (Sarhan and Fox, 2013). Because it is
responsible for the entire construction process, electrical design must be dependable. However,
the most important primary services are as follows:
Lighting (electrification)
 Fa çade engineering
ï‚· Plumbing
ï‚· Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
ï‚· Generation, supply, and distribution of energy
ï‚· Fire safety, detection, and protection
ï‚· Building management system
ï‚· Escalators and lifts
ï‚· ICT networks
Water distribution systems for buildings are often designed to run beneath streets and highways
as amajor means of distribution, and from there, they branch out to give water to various groups
of units or homes through aseries of connections.
Communication pipes, on the other hand, are used to convey water from the main distribution
piping system to the boundary of aresidential property. In other words, if agoverning body like
as Thames Water installs a stop-trap, the water-role board’s obligation stops and the property
owner’s responsibility begins, the pipes becomes the responsibility of the property owner.
Although not every building will be equipped with astop-tap, in the case that asingle stop-tap is
placed, the water supply company is responsible for keeping itin working order.
Among other things, the word “major services” refers to all of the services that are standardized
and required for the regular operation of astructure, such as adrainage and water supply, as well
as plumbing and other related services. Lighting, security, and ecologically friendly drainage
systems, as well as alarm and monitoring systems, are all included in this category. As an
example of secondary services, geothermal energy and solar power are examples of energy
supply systems that may be utilised in combination with main services to provide additional
benefits (Ghaffarianhoseini et al., 2017). Escalators, as well as information and communication
technology, will be included into the building’s construction. However, it is vital to note that
utility services such as natural gas, electricity, and water are first brought to the structure from
outside the structure before the distribution component is installed (Wang, Blache and Xu, 2017).
P9 Explain the distribution arrangements for primary services.
For example, the electrical system, which is one of the most important core services in the
construction of a structure, requires four different distribution designs. These electrical
distributions, on the other hand, are classified as radial and primary network, secondary chosen
network, and secondary network (Walker, 2018).
In terms of cost, the radial arrangement is the cheapest of these electrical designs since it has a
simple design and as a result, it has lower dependability when compared to the other
arrangements (Pekuri, Haapasaalo, and Herrala, 2011, pp.39-58. Because it contains just one
source, the radial distribution system is found to have less capacity when compared to alternative
arrangements, whereas the main selection system has two sources. secondary networks are
substantially stronger than primary networks, and their total strength is provided by the
secondary network, which may prevent faults (Zavalishin, Belyaev, and Sazonov, 2010, pp.815-
The division of process is implemented through ‘building services’ in order to improve and enrich
the living experience while also ensuring that the construction job is completed. Creation of a
work environment in which individuals can work and flourish as aresult of feeling more secure,
comfortable in their roles as employees and as residents of the community (Hurtado et al., 2017).
In order to guarantee that the structure serves its intended function, not only must it give shelter,
but it must also provide extra benefits, such as a quiet environment in which to carry out
operations effectively, as well. The purpose of the building tends to contribute to the overall
longevity, functionality, and upkeep of the structure. All of the services that are being efficiently
dispersed and handled with are represented in the illustration below (Wang, Blache and Xu,
2017). When you hire the finest people to work for you and implement services that demand a
significant amount of floor and ceiling space, you can boost your distribution networks even
more. The architect’s contribution in this area is significant, as they integrate electrical and
mechanical input that is efficient in meeting public health, safety, and environmental problems
concerns (Ghaffarianhoseini et al., 2017). Furthermore, obtaining appointments with governing
boards such as Thames Water and the United Kingdom Power Network will need to be done
separately, and researching the nearest contemporary mains feed would be necessary for the
creation of anew building project, as depicted in the second diagram (Arefeen, Liu, Xiao, and
Jiang, 2018).
M5 Demonstrate the elements of the superstructure used to facilitate the primary services.
Building construction projects utilise not just the highest structure and substructures to aid in the
performance of key duties, but the entire structure itself to accomplish these tasks. The external
and interior designs have only a little influence on the substructure’s capacity to endure the
elements in terms of strength. The superstructures of abuilding’s construction give mechanical
support and strength (Zavalishin, Belyaev, and Sazonov, 2010, pp. 815 –825), as well as aesthetic
appeal. It is also used to store water in tanks that are housed within the building’s superstructure,
as previously stated. On the other hand, these tanks provide water to the whole complex,
allowing for more convenient access to basic plumbing services. Because electrical generators
provide energy to the entire building, it is common for them to be situated on the roof of the
structure in order to limit disruption to individuals who are within the structure as aresult of the
noise generated by the machines. Powered by electricity, generators provide power for the entire
structure (Pekuri, Haapasalo, and Herrala, 2011, pp.39-58).
Renewable energy systems such as wind turbines and solar panels are being put in specific
buildings to generate electricity from avariety of sources. Along with astructure’s basic sources,
a data signal can be transmitted via a Dish Antenna or a V-sat connection, depending on the
scenario. Rooms, kitchens, and bathrooms are connected in a safe and secure way thanks to
electrical wire installed inside of the buildings’ superstructures, which is responsible for keeping
them connected (Pekuri, Haapasalo, and Herrala, 2011, pp.39-58).
When this technology is implemented, it has the effect of allowing electrical equipment in a
building to be operated freely and without limitation as aresult of its execution. When it comes
to the repair of gas and water lines, there are many different types of exterior barriers that may be
employed. Exterior and interior walls of structures are crucial in permitting the safe and secure
connection of natural gas, water, and electricity to the building’s infrastructure. The installation
of mechanical equipment and air conditioning units in the galleries of astructure that has already
been built is another potential alternative to consider as well.
D3 Appraise how the distribution of the impact of the primary service on the overall design of
the building.
Consequently, itmay be claimed that commercial buildings will often necessitate the use of large
cranes, powered gear, and specialized equipment and that the same is true for residential
buildings. There is another distinction in that, whereas commercial construction is used by
businesses such as industrial facilities and other business institutions, residential construction is
used to construct the structures that people live in. Examples of such structures include houses,
apartments, and condominiums (Hershberger, 2015). Aside from that, the utility of aproject may
vary based on its nature; for example, residential projects may be more focused on domestic
applications, whereas commercial projects may be more broad in reach by incorporating stores,
warehouses, and factories. In a similar vein, the type of construction has an influence on the
programme and functionality since a building that is functioning as intended would not be
noticed, but abuilding that is not operating as intended would be expensive to repair or replace
(Gourlis and Kovacic, 2017). When it comes to general functional qualities of a residential
building, these could include protection from factors such as curious onlookers or rain and wind,
while the major elements could address design selection, health and welfare concerns, and
overall quality of life considerations, amongst other things. After everything has been said,
cultural function is connected to the shape and character of the spatial environment, as well
urban design and planning considerations and issues, as well as environmental considerations
and issues (Ghaffarianhoseini et al., 2017).
Building long-term profitability into building projects necessitates the application of industrial
processes such as international commerce, smart technology, and green construction, among
others. Furthermore, ethical considerations, environmentally friendly alternatives, and
environmentally friendly options or alternatives all have the potential to promote sustainability
via the use of CSR principles and practises. Additionally, the use of wood would be critical since
it would need less energy and because well-maintained woodlands would provide biodiverse
habitat, which would be advantageous (Gourlis and Kovacic, 2017). When designing
magnificent buildings, the use of computer-aided design (CAD) is beneficial since it allows for
the detection of potential problems prior to the commencement of the real construction process
and the resolution of those problems before the actual construction process begins.
Yoshino, Hong, and Nord (2017) characterize the pre-design phase of the project as consisting of
surveys, reports, and projects, among other things, such as soil sampling and current survey
structure. Construction of basements and the production of cofferdams are all possible
applications for piling technologies. They may also be employed to preserve the structural
integrity of the structures. Also key components of the super-structure, which is composed of 18
distinct elements, are the roof and floor, the lintel and parapet, the drip course, the sun shade, and
the doors and windows. Drainage, water supply, and plumbing are all regarded as fundamental
services that, given the circumstances of the situation under review, might be properly assigned
(Hu, 2019).
In the past, many distinct technological principles were used in the construction of astructure.
Construction technology has advanced significantly since the early days of the 20th century,
allowing for the design and manufacture of structures that are safer, more affordable, and more
visually pleasing. Construction technology, according to Graham (2013), is a broad term that
encompasses many different types of tools, software, machinery, and modifications. By utilizing
a variety of new and improved construction methods, such as automated and semi-automated
construction equipment as well as other cutting-edge technologies, Graham (2013) claims that
construction technology is abroad term that encompasses many different types of tools, software,
machinery, and modifications. The civil engineering or infrastructure technologies utilized in the
development of the structure first segment.’s as described in this section. A range of building
services were supplied and dispersed in the next part, which also highlighted how they are
contained within abuilding. The use of diagrams in this work was intended to assist readers in
grasping the fundamentals of building construction.
Commercial properties are often large and complicated, necessitating the use of giant cranes,
motorised gear, and other specialised equipment. Additionally, commercial construction is used
to create industrial plants, warehouses, and other business activities, whereas residential
construction is used to construct houses, apartments, and other structures for people to live in
(Hershberger, 2015). Retail stores, warehouses, factories, and warehouses are examples of
commercial properties with varying utility requirements, whereas residential structures have a
wider range of requirements. A structurally inefficient structure will go unnoticed, but a
structurally functional structure will be expensive to repair, therefore the design of the building
has an impact on both the program and the functioning (Gourlis and Kovacic, 2017). The
fundamental purposes of aresidential building may include giving protection from the elements,
such as curious pedestrians, rain, and wind; however, other concerns may include beauty, health,
safety, and comfort, among other things. When it comes to environmental issues and urban
planning, the cultural function of the built environment is likewise concerned with these
components of the constructed environment (Ghaffarianhoseini et al., 2017).
It is necessary that worldwide commerce, smart technology, and environmentally friendly
construction be used to ensure the long-term success of construction projects. In addition to
ethical considerations, ecologically friendly alternatives, and the implementation of corporate
social responsibility programs, other variables that contribute to long-term profitability are: The
use of wood would also be crucial because of its reduced energy use and the production of
diverse habitats by well-maintained forests (Gourlis and Kovacic, 2017). Another advantage of
adopting computer-aided design (CAD) is that it helps architects to discover possible difficulties
with their ideas long before the actual construction of the structure takes place.
A soil sample and an appraisal of the present survey framework are two instances of pre-design,
according to Yoshino Hong and Norden’s definition (2017). Piling techniques can also be used in
the construction of basements and cofferdams, which can be advantageous. This includes the
roof, floor, parapet, and drip course of the superstructure, as well as the sunscreen and the doors
and windows of the superstructure, among other things. In the framework of this study, water
supply and drainage are also considered primary services that may be efficiently dispersed (Hu,
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