Assignment Answers Pdf Of Risk Of Health Of The Patient:SNM660

THROMBOSIS 1
running head: THROMBOSIS 1
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERMITTENT PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION IN
PREVENTING DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS IN PATIENTS FO …

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THROMBOSIS 1
running head: THROMBOSIS 1
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTERMITTENT PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION IN
PREVENTING DEEP VENOUS THROMBOSIS IN PATIENTS FOLLOWING STROKE
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TABLE OF CONTENT
Summary ………………………………………………………2
Introduction ……………………………………………………2
Background ……………………………………………………4
Literature review ………………………………………………..5
Method ………………………………………………………..
8
Results ……………………………………………………….
11
Conclusion …………………………………………………….1
7
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The report briefly provides an introduction that critically explains the main idea of the
research. The introduction introduces the main topic of the research. The report shows the
background of the issue in practice. The background explains the background of the main topic
showing how the addressed and the methods that will be presented to solve the issue. The
research identifies the question that is to be addressed. The report’s third issue is to be addressed
in evaluating the literature critically on the search process. From the question formulated and the
main topic, the report will critically analyze the evidence types from the methods and literature
(Machin et al., 2022). Lastly, the report will critically conclude to provide abreakthrough of how
the evidence found addresses the clinical issue identified in the introduction.
INTRODUCTION
The main topic of this paper is The effectiveness of intermittent pneumatic compression
in preventing deep venous thrombosis in patients following stroke. Deep venous thrombosis is a
disease of the veins where blood clots inside the vein, remaining stagnant inside adeep vein. The
paper will have an introduction that will provide the major aspects and the paper’s main topic.
The introduction will guide the reader on what they expect in the paper. The paper will have a
literature review section in which the main topic will be well explained (Kakkos et al., 2022).
The paper will contain abackground to indicate the background source of the research. The
paper will also contain the method used in obtaining the correct information to come up with this
paper. The paper will give the methods results that will discuss the main topic of this research.
The results will be followed by aconclusion that will summarize the main topic and later give
the recommendation that will sum up the paper.
The main aim of this assessment is to critically analyze one of the many clinical
delinquents, which for avery long time has been anuisance in each practice that bases its work
on clinical matters. The research will also major on how an individual or agroup of people in a
clinical background can systematically use aparticular technique which will aid them in making
the best conclusions and recommendations on an evidence-based argument.
In the essay, Iwill include abackground of the technique used to solve any evidence-
based situation. The paper will also contain acritical analysis of the specific method used to
create the question. The analysis will indicate the whole method used to come up with the
question, which will provide the evidence required to answer the clinical question.
In this research paper, the main search question aided in facilitating the process. The
process had to use evidence-based criteria, which will involve the patient and the population, the
InterventionIntervention, the comparison, and lastly, the outcomes of the process. In the search
process, the hierarchy of evidence is used to develop relevant results and conclusions. It helps
analyze the evidence that Iwill capture from the process. The paper shows evidence of the
process to be evaluated aprogram known as the Critical Skill Program. The main aim of this
program is to critically analyze the obtained evidence and give the best results as desired.
BACKGROUND
Deep venous thrombosis can be classified as afatal disease under thrombo-embolic
diseases. If the Deep venous thrombosis disease is not noted at an early age, itcan drastically
progress to forming the pulmonary embolism, which can highly increase the risk of the health of
the patient. To acertain degree, if the patient has avery weak immune system, itis very easy for
the Deep venous thrombosis disease to kill the patient within avery short time. When the patient
has alittle better immune system, the Deep venous thrombosis disease may cause astroke to the
patient, decreasing the patient’s life expectancy.
Many people and researchers have made an effort to eliminate the disease. During the
practice of some nursing students, they observed that there had been alack of understanding of
the procedure to use in presenting data on the beneficial effects of intermittent compression on
patients who have astroke that is caused by Deep venous thrombosis disease. Due to the lack of
an effective manner to present data about the disease, the health care providers have ahard time
providing the correct diagnosis for the people who have astroke caused by pulmonary embolism
disease. It is also difficult to identify pulmonary embolism as its signs and symptoms are not
precise. The signs and symptoms are not precise, especially in older people with stroke. Older
people with pulmonary embolism disease and stroke have avery low life expectancy, and their
health is avery high risk. The colleagues urge each person to take the correct precaution to
prevent the contraction of the pulmonary embolism disease. Due to the lack of aperfect method
to present data about the pulmonary embolism disease and the poor outcome of pulmonary
embolism disease, this paper will provide aformulated question that will give proper evidence
that will have apossibility of getting the best and perfect process to present the data about the
pulmonary embolism disease. The formulated question was used to show the evidence and
provide aframework that will modify the evidence research.
LITERATURE REVIEW
As mentioned earlier, this paper will use the population, InterventionIntervention,
comparison(PIC), and the evidence-based outcome to develop aresearch question that will give
the research evidence. Although the framework will not provide any comparison of the research,
this paper will use this framework to come up with the required keywords and to produce a
perfect list of other phrases that were incorporated to form aresearch question that does not
require any comparison (Murali et al., 2022). Twenty to forty percent of the patient population
who have had astroke have been found with the condition. Although IPC (Intermittent
Pneumatic Compression) does not have any reliable evidence of its effectiveness in preventing
deep venous thrombosis, ithas successfully increased the chances of survival for immobile
stroke patients after stroke. When using the IPC, clinical officers must consider that itimproves
survival, but itdoes not help gain quality-adjusted survival.
For this type of evidence-based research, itis evident that comparison is not very
essential. In return, itwill produce questions that do not have any comparison. As we shall see in
the results section, the outcome of the non-comparison question will give the effectiveness of
intermittent pneumatic compression in preventing deep venous thrombosis in stroke patients. In
the paper, Iwill use the people with stroke, especially those who acquired the stroke from the
deep venous thrombosis disease, as the population.
The incidence of venous thrombosis is common among stroke patients and is a
preventable medical condition that can cause death and disability. Many researchers and doctors
are coming up with the best way to prevent and control venous thrombosis disease. Most of them
in their research have generally recommended the use of antithrombotic or compression
stockings, which are the main methods used to prevent venous thrombosis. For the research to be
accepted and the two methods that use antithrombotic or compression stockings to prevent the
disease, strong evidence is required to conclude the two preventive measures.
To obtain the best results and get very strong evidence on the compression stockings to
identify whether the compression is an effective way of treating the disease, Idecided to develop
aresearch question that will be evidence-based. Ichose this research to find out how effective
compression stocking is in preventing this dangerous condition, specifically in stroke patients.
To come up with the results and the evidence for this research, Idecide to use clinical case
scenario two, which will give the best evidence-based questions on the effectiveness of
intermittent pneumatic compression in preventing deep venous thrombosis in patients following
stroke. To make aPICO question, Idecided to conduct literature research electronically based on
the following issues about the effectiveness of intermittent pneumatic compression in preventing
deep venous thrombosis in patients following stroke. Venous thrombosis has been highly
detected among stroke patients, putting them at avery high risk of death.
Deep venous thrombosis is adisease of the veins where blood clots. The vein remains
stagnant inside adeep vein, and itmostly occurs in the veins of the thigh or lower legs. It is
caused by injury of veins, for example, during operations. When the blood platelets are exposed,
they form ameshwork of fiber that traps the blood cell forming coagulation of blood which
could become venous thrombosis if the patient does not have heparin enough to stop the
formation of blood clots. Bone fracture, when abone fractures, can cut open the blood vessels,
which could cause blood to form the blood clots in the blood vessels. A hemorrhagic stroke can
develop from bone fracture and surgery — lots of body weight (obesity). People with obesity tend
to have many fats in their blood vessels. Obesity narrows the blood vessels, which ends up
cramping due to stagnation forming blood clots and even coagulating, causing ischemic stroke.
Also, sometimes the condition is inherited. The body cannot produce enough heparin, which is
an anti-clotting factor that keeps blood in astate of liquid form.
•Stroke (cerebrovascular disease) is adisease that occurs in the blood vessels that supply
blood into and out of the brain to supply oxygen and further remove metabolic wastes from the
ever supposed to be active brain cells. A stroke occurs when the vessels can no longer supply
oxygen into the brain and wastes are not removed from the cells. The brain cells start getting
damaged, or even worse, they die. A stroke patient is most likely to have deep venous
thrombosis. There are different types of strokes; Ischemic stroke –is caused by small blood
vessels cutting ashort supply of blood into the brain.
•Hemorrhagic stroke -caused by exposure of blood in the blood vessels when the blood
vessels are injured. In the brain, itcauses bleeding.
•Transient ischemic attack –itis considered amini-stroke. Blood is blocked temporarily.
When itdoes not flow in the brain fluently, itis when this stroke occurs.
Intermitted Pneumonic Compression is adevice that is used to prevent blood clots. By
compressing and contracting, more like the heart making sure blood is pumped hence itdoes not
stay in one place.
METHOD
The big question is how effective the IPC is in preventing DVT in stroke patients. IPC is
amethod that ensures that the blood is ever-flowing; hence no blood clots are formed. The IPC
devices are wrapped on the lower legs of the patient. As they inflate and deflate, they help the
blood circulate well in the patient’s body. When they inflate, compressing the legs, blood is
pushed out of the legs into the heart, and when itdeflates, blood is allowed back into the arteries
in the legs. Legs have small blood valves in the veins. The IPC damages afew making them
weak, and then they are made leaky hence blood is not restricted nor made to flow back nor
reduce the speed of flow blood. Hence allows blood to pool into the legs. It happens when the
patient is immobile, and muscles have been inactive for along (CLOTS et al., 2013). Muscle
movements are very important in helping blood circulation. When muscles contract and expand,
they help push blood into the vessels, and when this does not happen for long, blood tends to
move more slowly within the blood vessels, leading to blood coagulation and the formation of
blood clots (Rothwell et al., 2022). IPC sleeves also help prevent the formation of blood clots by
stimulating the body release substances that ensure no blood clots are formed.
From my research, Ifound that to see how effective the IPC is in acertain hospital with
patients with stroke who had undergone surgery. The hospital followed up on their recovery
journey, but itwas found that the IPC helped.
There are three kinds of clot trials.
1. Clot trail 1
2. Clot trail 2
3. Clot trial three, which is our main concern.
Clot trail one is used in patients experiencing small issues with venous thrombosis. Here
there is the use of graduated compressing stockings whose length is up to the thighs.
Clot trial 2is for advanced venous thrombosis risk. Here the graduated compression
stockings are below the knees.
Clot trial 3is where IPC is used.
The electronic research is based on CINAHL libraries. From my electronic research on
the CINAHL libraries, Iformulated aquestion that gave evidence-based results. the question that
Iformulated was, “is intermittent pneumatic compression effective in preventing deep venous
thrombosis in patients following stroke?” The main keywords that came out of the research
question included; Patient/Problems: this was to refer to the stroke patients who had had stroke
mostly out of the deep thrombosis infection. The other keyword is InterventionIntervention: the
main InterventionIntervention in the research was the antithrombotic stockings. Antithrombotic
stocking is an intermittent pneumatic compression under investigation of whether iteffectively
prevents deep venous thrombosis in patients following stroke. According to the research, the
research question was not comparable. Hence there was no comparison for the research question.
The outcome of this research clearly showed that the antithrombotic stocking is an intermittent
pneumatic compression, and itis very effective in preventing deep venous thrombosis in patients
following stroke.
The main keywords used in the research were compression stockings, patients with stroke,
and using keywords such as antithrombotic stockings (Nie et al., 2022). From my research, I
used the PICO questions that Ihad formulated together with the keywords to create astructure
and the focused question that helped me get into asubsequent step of evidence-based practice
from the electronic research in the CINAHL libraries.
In coming up with the evidence from the PICO question that Iformulated, Idecided to
select four articles that Iused to identify the quality of the evidence of the research question
(Sees et al., 2022). The four articles that Iselected were used to provide the evidence level of the
research, the relevance of the research question, and the case study evidence. Ifound out that the
research was very much relevant as itranges from the year 2012 to the year 2020.
Level of Evidence:
Because the PICO question is about the efficacy of compression stockings for treating
deep venous thrombosis, aliterature review was conducted to determine the efficacy of the
InterventionIntervention in the articles chosen. The qualitative approach used in all publications
is adequate, and the researcher has properly explained the research design. The papers picked
target aspecific issue, goal, aims, and outcome, critical in clinical practice. As aresult, the
selected publications have ahigh degree of proof.
Quality of Evidence:
Deep thrombosis occurs in the blood vessels deep inside the body. It is acondition in
which the blood forms blood clots in the blood vessels. However, this can be prevented as avery
dangerous condition that can even make apatient disabled or even cause death to the patient. The
condition is very common in patients with diseases like stroke. Compression stockings have been
put forward to prevent the condition (Ng et al., 2022). According to Michael and Thaila, as stated
in 2012, compression socks, as one of the recommendations for preventing deep venous
thrombosis, require evidence before using them. Ichose this research to determine how effective
compression stocking prevents this dangerous condition, specifically in stroke patients. Icame
about the search based on interest, questions formulated to get proven results, and enough
evidence. The question also in search has to have relevant results, and also the accuracy and how
appropriate they are is key.
How Isearched: Iresearched ProQuest, the library of Cochrane, and Embase (Robba et
al., 2021). How Iformulated the research question: first, Imade aPICO question. The question
was how effective the graduated compression stockings and the antithrombotic stockings are in
treating deep venous thrombosis. How Isearched iton the web “effectiveness of graduated
compression stockings in treating deep venous thrombosis”{ COMMENT FROM CHROME].
Keywords not be left out were effectiveness, compression stockings, and deep venous
thrombosis. To create afocused question that is well structured, Ihad to consider using PICO
questions and choose keywords that would not miss in the question when searching. Of the
present articles, Ichose four of them which are more relevant to my research and the PICO
question, articles with ahigh level of evidence, those that were latest from 2012 to 2020, and
those that had high-quality papers of evidence.
The level of evidence: from the search “effectiveness of graduated compression stockings
in treating deep venous thrombosis,” Ireviewed the selected articles to see how effective they
were in this research. All four articles qualified, and their good methodology justified my
research design. Key vital clinical practice that is the outcome was addressed in the article. The
issue that is to be focused on, the aims, and the objectives were also cited (Endoh et al., 2022).
indicated that the selected articles were suitable since the evidence level proves that research
competence is high.
Quality of evidence: the first article from Graduated Compression socks is effective.
After patients undergo surgery, according to the article, the application of the socks helps prevent
deep venous thrombosis.
The second article completely contradicted the first article. Findings from their research
are that the graduated compression stockings were ineffective in preventing the deep venous
thrombosis condition (Endoh et al. a., 2022). Their reason was that there was no difference or
improvement of the condition in two years of apatient using this stocking. Hence the stockings
are not effective.
The third article supported the use of IPC instead. From their research, the compression
stockings on clot one and clot 2were only effective for some time and on patients who were not
in acute venous thrombosis. However, stroke patients are different, and amore advanced method
is supposed to be used, the Intermitted Pneumatic Compression (Por čnik et al., 2022). The article
suggests that IPC is more effective and increases the chances of survival better in immobile
patients than compression socks, which are also known as graduated compression stockings.
The fourth article: the article suggested that using compression socks will help, but for a
while.
Relevance of the study: The research strategy had avery high level of evidence from the
articles. The type and year of publication were included for relevance and ahigh level of
reliability in the provided information (Busby et al., 2022). also would ensure that one research
on them would be using the most recent data.
Conclusion
The available data from the selected article reveals that compared with regular care or
other medical InterventionIntervention, the administration of compression stockings in the
treatment of deep venous thrombosis is efficient; still, more investigation is recommended. The
trial of articles 1and 3has shown that fewer patients develop DVT with stockings than with no
(Ross et al., 2022). The compression stockings are useful for DVT treatment, yet articles 2and 4
demonstrate no difference in the intervention and control groups. Sachdeva, Dalton, and Lees
(2019) said in article 1that mechanical and pharmacological approaches are used to avoid DVT.
The pharmacological procedure alters the blood coagulation profile, and the principal
disadvantage is the risk of bleeding, which is particularly concerning in surgical patients.
Compression stockings, on the other hand, have no disadvantages. The disadvantages of
compression stockings occur primarily when the stockings are administered incorrectly.
Although certain findings in the research suggest that ECS may have little impact on the normal
course of DVT, compression stockings may be beneficial in alleviating DVT symptoms. Article
3reveals that administration of IPC is associated with a64% reduction in the risk of developing
DVT (P0.001). As aresult of the paper’s results, Ithink compression stockings or antithrombotic
stockings are beneficial in treating DVT.
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