PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR CONSTRUCTION
INTRODUCTION …. …
PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR CONSTRUCTION
INTRODUCTION ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 3
Stud y P urpose ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 7
METHODO LOGY ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 7
Resea rc h Ra tio na le a nd Design ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………. 10
Qua lita tive Resea rc h Ratio na le ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 10
Exp lo ratory Researc h Ratio na le ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………….. 11
Methodo lo gica l S teps invo lved ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 11
Selectio n Lo gic Partic ipa nts ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………………….. 13
Conformab ility ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 14
Ethica l P roced ures ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………. 14
REF ERENCES ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………… 15
Most of the research in Iran outlines that over 70 percent of employees are committed to their
responsibilities at places of work. Studies have referred to the engaged workers as individuals
who are involved, committed and much concerned about their respon sibilities, workplace and
fellow workers The collected data by researchers for the past couple of years has clearly
indicated a persistent decrease in workers’ involvement within their workplaces in different
organisations across Iran . MesÃ¡roÅ¡ and Colleag ues (2018) . This particular study joins the
conversation of exploring the manner in which the integrity of the project plays an important
role in the continuity plan of the business. In this regard the paper considered integrity of the
project as the tec hnique of configured data capturing from the system of decision support.
The paper establishes and concludes that management of the project integrity is very crucial
or sustainability and its success since after successful organization of the project, it b ecomes
easy to be supported.
Contrary to the cultural decline in workersâ€™ commitment, there is an intensive development of
remote/telecommuting work alternatives encountered by various organizations across the
country. Oswald and Colleagues (2018) observing the intensive rise in the percentage of
remote workers by 80% between the years 2005 and 2013 (Keers and van Fenema 2018), it is
clear that since the the covid -19 pandemic strike, working remotely has become very
common among various organisati ons . Organisational culture scientists define this as the
culture of involvement, i.e., a working environment in which the employees establish a
culture supported by efficient work, attentive participation of the employees, effective
leadership and job -organization fit ( Aubry, and Lavoie 2018) . Following the intense
development alongside the creation of remote working alternatives, much concern has risen
among owners of different organisations within the nation concerning their capability to
establish, co ntrol and retain better workplace culture involvement among workers who rarely
interact with them. Despite the establishment of the organizational framework for the
management of the integrity of the project, such systems are internally organized and the role
of the remote team in the upholding of the construction project remains to be unresolved
issue. Now considering the fact that success of the construction project is never dependent on
the on the internal stakeholders mobilization only but external fact ors as well, this
dissertation is therefore very relevant since it will highlight the contribution and the role
which remote team plays towards upholding projectâ€™s intergrity.
As the construction industry continues to face the sev ere impacts of the outbreak of Corona
virus, most of the companies have been compelled to either limit their activities or shut down
completely. As a result, the concept of working from home has found its relevance in the
presence of construction industry. The companies have therefore resorted to adopting new
ways of communicating and working with teams in remote locations Wang and Colleagues
(2021) . This reality has been characterized by various challenges for the companies of
construction which are currently in the process of managing their respective sites of
construction remotely while at the same time ensuring that there sufficient workforce
connection. Not only do the companies rely on the tools of project management but also
relevant technology for overcoming the challe nges.
The engagement practice among the remote workers is observed to improve in line with the
increase or advancement in technologies supporting remote activities or operations. In other
words, as the situation demands for remote working like in the case of COVID -19
requirement of keeping social distance, the number of remote workers increases
significances. However, researchers have failed to pay attention to this issue of concern
which calls for the increase in the application o f technology in the systems of management to
accommodate remote workers. According to most leaders of organisations, organisational
culture observed within the traditional office is assumed to cover the virtual work
environment although this is contrary to the research conducted by ( Kejriwal, Sequeda, and
Lopez 2019) .
This particular research was conducted to bridge the gaps and increase understanding of
remote employees’ work and place within the organizations. The research results provide
leaders of diff erent organisations with information and tools required for adequate
understanding of the management practices involving remote employees. The aim of this case
study is to provide a range of responses to the essential factors contributing towards
enhanceme nt, eroding and maintaining workplace involvement for around 20 remote
employees across the globe who has served the company for at least one year through the
help of critical incident technique (CIT). The study through its framework was meant to offer
the correct information and support to the literature and improve remote workersâ€™ knowledge
about employees’ engageme nt.
The ability of organisational leaders to practice effective management and control of the
organisation is currently suppressed by the rap id changes in technology. Considering the
accessibility of mobile devices, most workers propose the distribution of such management
support instruments within their places of work to ensure working alternatives in remote
conditions. In the late 1990s, lead ers of various organisations used to offer face -to-face
management as well as oversight to the workers operating in the office desks, and by this,
they did not have the ability to provide an immediate response to the concerns and demands
of the workers. Wa ng and Colleagues (2021) The current workplaces are treated to be
working environments comprising both remote and in -office workers, despite variation in
needs of the employees as a result of a difference in the environment of operation. The major
challen ge that the management team has experienced is the increase in the total number of
remote workers with reduced knowledge on workplace involve me nt.
Overview of the dissertation structure
This paper is divided into different sections right from the introduc tion where general view of
the author is highlighted, research problem, in which the author identifies the existing
knowledge gap to be addressed in relation to remote engagement of employees, is introduced,
and objectives of the research as well as relate d research questions to monitor the research
procedure are presented. I t build upon the theory of involvement of workers outlined by
Chawla and Colleagues (2018) through the identification of events and feedbacks regarded to
be essential in influencing workplace involvement of remote employees ( ÙØ°Ø Ù‡Ø±ØªÙ‡Ø¨ Ù‡Ù„Ù…Ø¬ Ù†ÛŒØ§
Ù‡Ø´Ø¨ ). The paper also outlines the research methodology involving the use of Computer
Information Tech nology (CIT) to assist in creating the taxonomy of responses to those
incidents that are crucial for the maintenance, strengthening, and deterioration of the
engagement at the workplace of remote workers nationally. It is assumed that employees are
on per manent employment basis as opposed to contracts causing one of the limitations of the
study to only select 14 employees for this case study. The significance of the research is
outlined in the form of contributio n to the productivity of manageme nt team.
Justification of the study
According to the research conducted by different scholars, over 70% of workers in the US
have no commitment to their duties, and this results in a rise in organizational expenditure
per year ( Keegan ,Ringhofer and Huemann 2018) . The actual challenge faced by the
management is the high percentage of non -committed remote workers constituting 50% of
the total employees who are subjected to a work culture that suppresses their role within the
company, reducing their career developmen t capabilities while promoting the culture of
isolation ( Erdogan, Å aparauskas and Turskis 2017) . Such non -committed workers contribute
to the high cost of development within the country per year. Following the availability of
insufficient information on t he levels of employeesâ€™ engagement, this research joins this
discussion at advanced to study employeesâ€™ involvement in their duties and establish a
taxonomy of the essential events and responses capable of enhancing and maintaining the
desired level of par ticipatio n among remote workers.
S t udy P urpose
The primary objective of this particular project was to assist in understanding the role played
by the remote teams in the maintenance of project integrity as an integral part of the plans of
business continu ity. A business continuity plan refers to the process that concentrates on the
system creation necessary for prevention and recovery from potential threats. In order to meet
the aims and objectives of the project, it will be essential to ensure that all th e elements which
are related to the project are met. The paper has therefore focused on exploring how the
integrity of the project plays a vital role in the business continuity plan. In this context,
project integrity refers to the approaches used in captu ring the configured data from the
support system of decision and automation of relevant information hence data authenticity .
The research was conducted to establish a range of responses to various factors contributing
to the maintenance, enhancement and eroding of involvement on the part of workers at the
Understanding the significance of the project integrity in any kind of management framework
should be considered in the context of contribution to the business’s continuity plan. Through
this business plan, one would be able to identify the resources that are significantly needed
for the operation of the business successfully. What is the extent of contribution of a remote
team towards the maintenance of the continuity plans of the business for the projectâ€™s
management? How can the projectâ€™s integrity be maintained during the execution stage of
the pr oject? The thorough literature review carried out above has proved to be effective in
providing the foundation for data collection since it pokes holes in the areas where
researchers have done minima l work.
Adopte d re se arch Frame work
The conceptual framew ork for this particular research work was a proposal for studying the
issues related to workplace involvement by employees in remote areas. The conceptual
system designed based on the commitment theory of a particular scientist established the
basic founda tion for understanding the benefit of employee engagement in the construction
project management and outlining the perspective of different individuals about workplace
engageme nt. The framework adopted for the research is as illustra ted below.
The prima ry aim of this particular case study involving the use of Computer Information
Technology (CIT) was to assist in creating the taxonomy of responses to those incidents that
are crucial for the maintenance, strengthening, and deterioration of the engagement at the
workplace of 14 remote workers nationally. These employees have worked for their
organisations for not less than one year. This particular investigation was completed using
CIT – a set of procedures that are useful in collecting direct observation of the behaviour
under the definition criteria as deemed necessary. The results were expected to assist in
identifying which responses were very influential regarding the incidents of remote works
engagement besides enhancing understanding of the remote work culture emergence. This
chapter includes the research rationale and design, the researcherâ€™s role, the sampling
technique, and the sampling size. There is a provision of details related to the instruction of
data collection and the recruitment plans. Besi des, the relevant strategies to be used to
enhance the trustworthiness of this particular research work and discussions on the
consideratio n of research ethics have been presented.
R es ea r ch R a t i o n a l e a n d Des i g n
To build the foundation of the present resear ch theoretically, there would be a need to adopt
the approach of grounded theory to capture the firsthand account of the remote workers
regarding the challenges and experience they have gained while working from home. The
engagement of the employees and th e organisationâ€™s culture in the office’s traditional
environment have been appropriately studied. However, what is not clearly known is how
such practices can be experienced and defined within the context of the remote work
To further explore the remote workplace engagement phenomenon; this particular study
involved using the methodology of an exploratory qualitative case study. A qualitative
approach is an appropriate and efficient method for research that offers a researcher or the
research t eam a probative tactic to thoroughly investigate the problem in existence. In the
case of the exploratory qualitative case study, the study process involved collection,
interpretation and analysis of data. The collection of the responses of the incidents o bserved
to be important and meeting the criteria systematically defined was achieved by the use of
CIT. Also, there was the use of CIT in gathering observations directly regarding the
behaviour while at the same time extrapolating the usefulness potentiall y regarding the
problem solution as well as the development of the principles which are human -centred
broadly. The case study method is usually appropriate when the study seeks to provide a
detailed explanation of the present social circumstances or situat ion and when there is no or
limited control over the events and the exploratio n just involve a contemporary phenomeno n.
Q ualitative Research Rationale
The study by extension sought to establish how the practitioners, scholars, leaders, and
managers can hel p in the definition, identification, and influence the culture of remote
workersâ€™ engagement as part of enhancing the project integrity and business plan. The
problem is generally about more workers in Iran not being engaged at work has been costing
the co untry a lot of financial losses on an annual basis. There is a steady increase in the
number of remote workers while the levels of engagement of the remote workers have been
decreasing. This trend has significa ntly affected the business plans and project i ntegrity.
E x ploratory Research Rationale
The methodology of the exploratory single case study is usually considered to be appropriate
particularly when there is very little known about the matter or the phenomenon under
investigation, which in this case w as remote workersâ€™ engagement towards the improvement
of the project integrity and business plans. Therefore, the case study was identified to be
useful as one of the strategies for studying the organisation processes and the exploratory
investigations. Th e focus of the phenomenological approach was on the participantâ€™s lived
experiences and how they experienced the phenomenon itself. The studyâ€™s focus was the
participantâ€™s experience as remote employees in an evolving phenomeno n.
M e thodological Steps invol ved
The intricacy of understanding how the engagement of the workplace is remotely experienced
needs an approach of the research that openly provides an opportunity to examine the matter
or phenomenon as it is experienced. As a result of the minimal avail ability of data directly
related to the engagement of the workplace remotely, the study involved the use of the
method of an exploratory case study to discover the responses to the incidents that have a
significant influence on the engagement in remote wor kplaces. In order to allow for the
successful engagement in the processes of qualitative analysis through the approach of the
exploratory case study, there was the use of CIT as the data and research collection
The procedures involved in CIT are primarily five steps. The first step involved the
identification of the general aims. This required establishing the pertinent questions of
research before the research work could be carried out. Throughout this stage, th ere was a
design of the research questions that assisted in understanding how employee socialisation
and organisational adaptability influence the employeesâ€™ learning in the places of work. In
step 2, there was a planning stage that involved addressing the situation pending for
observations, the observers to be engaged, the methods of data analysis after collections, and
the existing guidelinesâ€™. Step 3 involved the processes of data collection. In this step, there
was an observation of the incidents and t heir subsequent collection through a group
interview, one -on -one interview, through filed notes or questionnaires. The choice of the
method of data collection was based on the observed phenomenon, available time for
carrying out observations, and other fac tors with the potential of affecting the ability of the
researcher to complete the processes of collection. In step 4, there was a summary of the
research and a description of data for other relevant purposes.
In order to allow for the analysis of data co llected through CIT, there was a selection of a
frame of reference in the determination of how data were to be used. There was then the
establishment of the categories of incidents to identify major and subareas for the storage of
the data collected. Final ly, step five involve interpretation and reporting of the collected data.
At this stage, any of the arising biases in the previous four steps were addressed.
This particula r study was guided by the following assumptio ns:
ï¶ The sample was made up of a represe ntative, a set of participants that provided
accounts of their experiences in work and reactions to the incidents they had
encountered in their operations as remote workers.
ï¶ The level of engagement of the population targeted mirrored or reflected the 70%
disengage me nt level of the countryâ€™s workforce.
ï¶ Every worker had experienced varying workplace engagement levels as influenced by
the relationship between their supervisors and co -workers.
ï¶ A potential confirmation of participants of their remote work statu s was one criterion
of inclusio n.
ï¶ The participants experienced no personal gains through taking part in this particular
ï¶ Participants were not required or asked to share their experience during the interview
with any other person apart from the inter viewe r.
ï¶ Finally, the collected data from this particular study would be helpful for
organisatio ns that engage or offer remote work options.
Se lection Logic Participants
As already pointed in the previous sections of this paper, remote workers were those on
permanent employment contracts and terms. These individuals permanently worked from an
alternative place or location outside their workplace. The remote worker profile for this
particular study was basically an individual who had been working remotely as an
organisationâ€™s full -time employee for one year. There was the use of purposeful sampling in
the provision of the richest data possible which relates to the experience of engagement for
the remote workers. All the participants in this particular study:
ï¶ Represented individuals classified as remote workers that had been working on a
permanent basis from a remote location different from the workplace of their
ï¶ Met the definitio n of a full -time employee as per the structures of the organisatio n s
ï¶ Showed the ability to fully participate in the study at their time of appointments
outlined in their agreements of participatio n
ï¶ Finally, volunteered to take place in the study as participants as opposed to the
condition of employme nt.
C o n formability
In order to address the concerns and issues of conformability, there was an application of data
triangulation to assist in the reduction of any form of biasness. The information was collected
from several sources to ensure strength provision in the case stud y validity in construction
Chawla and Colleagues (2018 ) One of the primary objectives regarding addressing
conformability is illustrating that the studyâ€™s results are a true reflection of the individuals
who participated in the study instead of the researc her’s preference and characteristics.
Et h ical Procedures
As earlier noted, during the meeting initially, the potential participants received information
in detail regarding the research processes, the researcher’s role, the anticipated role from
them, and other questions that might have been related to the entire process of the interview.
There was an issue of a letter of understanding related to the voluntary nature of the study as
well as the protocol of the interview.
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